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Plant Structures Plant Science
Major Plant Parts roots stems leaves buds flowers
Functions of Roots anchor the plant absorb water and minerals
store manufactured food
Parts of the Root primary root: the single main root
secondary roots: small branches that form off the main root root hairs: tiny roots that increase the absorption surface area root cap: protects the growing tip of roots
Root System Types adventitous roots: grow from the stem or leaf of a plant (ex. corn stalks have prop roots) tap root system: root system with one thick main root (examples: pine trees, carrots, dandilions) fibrous root system: root system with many small main roots (examples: grasses, soybeans, impatiens)
Functions of Stems support the leaves, flowers, and fruit
conduct water, minerals, and food store food and water produce new stem tissues
Parts of the Stem 2 types of conductive tissues
xylem: transports water and minerals from the roots phloem: transports food from the leaves cambium: the layer of dividing cells that creates the xylem and phloem becomes growth rings in trees
Vascular Bundles made up of the xylem and pholem
in monocots, they are scattered in dicots, they are in a circle (or a ring)
Buds contain undeveloped plant structures
bud scales: protect and cover the bud terminal bud: a large bud at the tip of a stem lateral buds: grow along the side of stems apical meristem: primary growing point of the stem
Leaves produce food for the plant through photosyntheis
epidermis: a protective layer of cells on the leaf cuticle: a waxy coating that prevents water loss stomata: pore-like openings on the underside of the leaf that allow gas exchange guard cells: control the opening and closing of the stomata veins: carry nutrients and products of photosynthesis (contain the xylem and phloem)
Mesophyll layer of the leaf where photosynthesis takes place
made up of two layers: palisade layer spongy layer
Function of Flowers reproduction (to produce seeds)
sepals: protect the unopened flower calyx: the collection of sepals petals: attract pollinators (insects and birds)
Male Part of the Flower as a whole, known as the stamen
made up of two structures: filament: supports the anther anther: produces pollen pollen: contains the male sex cells pollination has to occur for seeds to develop
Female Part of the Flower
as a whole, known as the pistil made up of three parts: stigma: sticky surface for pollen to land on style: supports the stigma ovary: contains the female sex cells fruit: contains the seeds; develops from the ovary
Types of Flowers complete flowers: have sepals, petals, stamen, and pistil incomplete flowers: are lacking one of the four main parts
Monoecious vs. Dioecious
monoecious plants: have male and female flowers on the same plant dioecious plants: have male and female flowers on separate plants imperfect flowers: do not have male and female parts on the same flower
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