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Published byEarl Jackson Modified over 7 years ago
Libertyville HS – World History
“Period of Warring States” China descended into chaos; culture appeared to be threatened Chinese scholars wanted to revive values of respect, harmony and social organization
Believed social order, harmony & good government were brought about by learning Believed human beings could be perfected through learning Confucius, in Chinese
Confucius believed that all society would be restored with restoration of 5 relationships Ruler and Subject Father and Son Husband and Wife Older Brother and Younger Brother Older Friend and Younger Friend
Believed personal virtue would lead to good government Stressed filial piety, or the need for children to respect their parents and their elders (& the living, the dead) Education could transform a peasant into a gentleman Believed power was something to be wielded for the benefit of the people Filial Piety scene
Appointed Minister of Justice Legend: crime disappeared overnight Resigned when boss interfered with his methods Continued teaching & wrote the Analects
Means “Conversation” in Chinese Collection of sayings attributed to Confucius Focus of Analects Interpersonal relationships Relationship of king to ministers Relationship of government to people Confucianism is NOT a religion!
Believed that government, not virtue, was the key to restoring order to China Revered those who carried out their duty Believed in harsh punishment for those that did not fulfill their duty Believed that people were selfish, greedy, etc but could be made good by laws
Qin Dynasty applied Legalism to their government Result = Authoritarian gov’t Obeying government more important than exercising individual freedom Disagreement with government was a capital offense Legalists suggested rulers burn all writings critical of government
Peasant rebellions against government began in far-off provinces Local officials were afraid to report problem to central government Central government didn’t learn of rebellions until it was too late to stop
Lao Zi and the Dao De Ching (The Way of Virtue) Universal force, Dao, is a guide to all things Nothing in nature strives for fame, power (they are one with the Way) Only MAN resists The Way by striving Man questions right, wrong; this goes against The Way (pointless question to Daoists)
I Ching Book of oracle bones consulted for ethical, practical problems Gave good advice based on common sense
Yin & Yang Power that represent rhythm of life When equally present, all in one’s life is calm When one is outweighed, there is confusion / disarray in life Yin = Heaven / Male / Active Yang = Earth / Female / Passive Daoism was NOT a religion but rather a way of living
Confucianism, Daoism have shaped China for more than 2000 years’ Opposing duality of ideas Confucianism represents individual moral duty, community standards, governmental responsibility Daoism represents individual freedom & spontaneity, laissez faire government, mysticism
Three ideas of Legalism have survived to today Utilitarianism: do jobs that materially benefit others (esp. agriculture) Rule of Law: law is supreme over all, incl. Emperor Uniformity of law, culture, language increases cultural coherence & gov’t centralization
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