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How Do We Learn? -Learning Theories- 1/ 25 Zekeriya Aktürk Atatürk University Medical Faculty

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Presentation on theme: "How Do We Learn? -Learning Theories- 1/ 25 Zekeriya Aktürk Atatürk University Medical Faculty"— Presentation transcript:

1 How Do We Learn? -Learning Theories- 1/ 25 Zekeriya Aktürk Atatürk University Medical Faculty

2 Before starting this session ask yourself the following question: –What do I think about the learning methods of people? –What is my best learning experience? What was the main factor leading to learning? How do people learn? 2/ 25

3 At the end of this presentation, participants should have information about learning theories. At the end of this presentation, the participants should; –Explain three learning theories –Explain and discuss the assumptions of Knowles on adult learning –Explain the experiential learning theory Objectives 3/ 25

4 What is the use of learning theories? Learning theories have two chief values : –One is in providing us with vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning that we observe. –The other is in suggesting where to look for solutions to practical problems. The theories do not give us solutions, but they do direct our attention to those variables that are crucial in finding solutions. / 254 Winfred Farrington Hill. Learning: A survey of psychological interpretation (7th ed), Allyn and Bacon, 2002, Boston, MA.

5 Three Main Learning Theories The behavioral learning theory Cognitive learning theory Constructive learning theory / 255

6 For behaviorism, learning is the acquisition of a new behavior through conditioning. There are two types of conditioning: –Classical conditioning, where the behavior becomes a reflex response to stimulus (Pavlov). –Operant conditioning, where there is reinforcement of the behavior by a reward or a punishment. Behavioral Theory 6/ 25 John Broadus Watson (1878 – 1958) Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904)

7 Behaviorists view the learning process as a change in behavior, and will arrange the environment to elicit desired responses through such devices as behavioral objectives, competency-based learning, and skill development and training. / 257

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9 Cognitive Learning Theory Proposes looking at the patterns rather than isolated events Two key assumptions underlie this cognitive approach: –that the memory system is an active organized processor of information and –that prior knowledge plays an important role in learning / 259 Bode, Boyd Henry (1929). Conflicting Psychologies of Learning. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company. Boyd Henry Bode (1873 – 1953)

10 Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to consider how human memory works to promote learning, and an understanding of short term memory and long term memory is important to educators influenced by cognitive theory. They view learning as an internal mental process (including insight, information processing, memory and perception) where the educator focuses on building intelligence and cognitive development. The individual learner is more important than the environment. / 2510

11 Stages of cognitive competence 1.Unconsciously unskilled. 2.Consciously unskilled. 3.Consciously skilled. 4.Unconsciously skilled. 5.Consciously skilled. / 2511 Noel Burch, Linda Adams. Learning a New Skill is Easier Said than Done. Gordon Training International.

12 The Social Cognitive Theory (Albert Bandura) / 2512

13 Constructivist Model (Jean Piaget) Emphasizes the importance of the active involvement of learners in constructing knowledge for themselves, and building new ideas or concepts based upon current knowledge and past experience. / 2513 Gibbons, B. (2004). "Supporting science education for English learners: promoting effective instructional techniques.". Electronic Journal of Literacy through Science 3: 1–17. (1896 – 1980)

14 Free investigation and effort by the trainee is encouraged The trainer is in a facilitator role. Student discovers problem solving using real life examples. / 2514

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16 Example Learning competency: to stop when signal is red. –Behavioral learning: –Cognitive learning: –Constructive learning: / 2516

17 Androgogic learning theory (Malcolm Knowles) Reflective learning (Donald Schön) Experiential learning (David Kolb) Zone of Proximal Development (Lev Vygotsky) Some other theories 17/ 25

18 1.Need to know: Adults need to know the reason for learning. 2.Foundation: Experience (including error) provides the basis for learning activities. 3.Self-concept: Adults need to be responsible for their decisions on education; involvement in the planning and evaluation of their instruction. 4.Readiness: Adults are most interested in learning subjects having immediate relevance to their work and/or personal lives. 5.Orientation: Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented. 6.Motivation: Adults respond better to internal versus external motivators. Androgogic learning theory (Malcolm Knowles) 18/ 25

19 Reflektive Learning Reflection-on-action –a process in which individuals reflect on actions and thoughts after they have taken place. Reflection-in-action –takes place as the action occurs. Reflection-for-action (Killion & Todnem 1991). –This type of reflection guides future action based on past thoughts and actions. It combines reflection-on- action and reflection-in-action. / 2519

20  David Kolb  It has four components Experiential learning 20/ 25 “tell me and I will forget, show me and I may remember, involve me and I will understand”.

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22 Zone of Proximal Development 22/ 25 Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help.

23 Neuronal learning Our brain has appr. 100 billion neurones Each neurone makes synapse with 1000 – 10 000 other neurones / 2523

24 The hierarchy of needs / 2524

25 Which learning theories can you list? Explain the assumptions of Knowles’s adult learning. Explain Kolb’s experiential learning cycle. Summary 25/ 25

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