2 Learning Outcomes By the conclusion of this discussion you should: More thoroughly understand what motivates people to learn and to perform.Be able to put together a 5 min training on a motivational theoryUnderstand learning, how it progress’s, why it is resisted, and how differently people learn.
3 Factors Underlying Individual Performance AptitudeLearningRolePerceptionsAbilityKSAPerformanceMotivationEffortIn order to understand, motivation you must understand what performance is. This is a inclusive diagram of all the components of performance. In other words, performance is effected by all of the elements of this diagram.Discuss in detail.We will talk in detail about the components of motivation, learning and environment.TaskWorkEnvironment
4 MotivationMotivation: The direction, persistence and amount of effort expended by someone in order to achieve a desired outcome.Cognitive (mental structure: thinking, memory)Can’t be directly observedDefined in terms of effects on behaviorTwo groups of theories to explain motivation:NeedProcessReview. Students should already have an understanding of basic concept.Exercise: Divide into three groups. Have groups discuss the theories and then answer the following questions.
5 Group Break-out Instructions Assumptions: Everyone has read the chapter. Each of you are protégés of the theorists.Discuss in depth the theory your group has been assigned. Come to a common understanding on the content.Identify:Underlying principles of theoryImplications for trainers and the training processOutcome: Assign 2 members to give a five minute presentation to the class. Be creative in your training. Your objective is for your audience to understand the theory and its importance in the training arena. I.e. demonstrate how it works, give real life examples, experiment with your audience.Engage with the material. Don’t merely regurgitate the text.ERGReinforcementExpectancyScribe the key points on board, if the presenters don’t.
6 ERG Theory Developed by Clayton Alderfer 1969 Based on the work of A. MaslowExistence Needs – needs people have to sustain life (food, shelter, ,etc.)Relatedness Needs – needs people have to belong and feel accepted by others.Growth Needs – needs people have to accomplish goals and stretch their limits.ERG – achieved symotamiouslyTraining Implications:*Satisfy basic needs: provide adequate comfort; food if necessary; environment*Build in opportunities to socialize and build relationships; share experiences; conduct ice breakers/team experiences.*Design programs to stretch people and their abilities; provide feedback & encouragement.Understand individuals’ needs & address them.
7 Reinforcement Theory S C R Developed by E. L. Thorndike and modified by B. F. Skinner (operant conditioning)Law of effect – behavior followed by satisfying experiences will be repeated and behavior followed by dissatisfying experiences will be avoided.Operant Conditioning:Stimulus – object or event in the environmentResponse – stimulus behaves in a certain way based on the stimulusConsequence – response/behavior results in an outcome (positive or negative)Four types of consequences.SCRstimulusresponseconsequence
8 Reinforcement Theory Four Consequences: Positive Reinforcement – when a person’s behavior results in something desirableNegative Reinforcement – when a person’s behavior results in removal of something that is disliked or frustrating.Whether the reinforcement is positive or negative, it increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.Training Implications:Understand relationship of S – R – CBuild in opportunities to reinforce desired behaviors
9 Reinforcement Theory Four Consequences Punishment- when something undesirable happens to you and it decreases the likelihood that your behavior will be repeatedPunishment reduces the future likelihood of a behaviorExtinction – a form of punishment that results from losing something that was desirableDiscuss implications of punishment: doesn’t motivate people to do things only to not do things.. Requires constant policing and encourages people to get around the system. Behavior could be rewarding and therefore punishment must be severe to work. Someone must do the punishing.Positive or negative reinforcement are preferred.
10 Expectancy Theory Developed by Victor Vroom (1964) Tries to describe the cognitive processes involved in deciding how to satisfy needs.Mathematical in natureTakes into account the fact that people are motivated by different things.
11 Expectancy Theory of Motivation 1EE2VExpectancyXInstrumentalityXValence=EffortEffortPerformancePerform.OutcomeValue of OutcomeDoes trainee have abilityto learn?Does the trainee believethat training outcomespromised will bedelivered?Are outcomes promisedvalued by the trainee?Training Implications:Expectancy – assess level of expectancy during person NA; pre-training to deal with issues of expectancy; don’t move forward until training participants are comfortance that they have the ability to achieve desired performance.Valence – ensure outcome is of value; determine during needs assessment; communicate to trainees what they can and will get from completing trainingInstrumentality – gain and maintain management support and commitment; demonstrate support to trainees (management participation)Does trainee believethey can learn?
12 Self-Efficacy Feelings about one’s own competency Associated with a belief that one can and will perform successfully.Low: concerns about failureHigh self-efficacy has been linked to better performance.Plays a role in expectancy theoryTraining can improve self-efficacy
13 Understanding Learning Learning: relatively permanent change in cognition, resulting from experience and directly influencing behavior.Short-lived changes in cognition are not includedNot dependent on behavior changeTied to memory (changing in neural functioning)DiscussBehaviorist approach – learning measured in terms of relatively permanent changes in behavior.Cognitive approach – learning is a change in the content, organization, and storage of information. Learning is a relatively permanent change in cognition occurring as a result of experience.Based on which theory you lean to, both effect education and training very differently.We will use a combination of the two in the definition of learning and try to incorporate a inclusive approach to training and education.Gagne’s approach is based on an integration of the two learning theories.
14 Gagne’s Learning Types Signal Learning - generalized response (typically non-voluntary) to a signal in the environmentClassical conditioning – Pavlovi.e. salivationStimulus-response – single response to a single stimulus as a result of consequence to responseOperant conditioning/reinforcement theoryi.e. Touch a hot stove – learn not to touch the stoveSignal learning and stimulus response are independent from the other types of learning.Learning 3-8 rely on lower levels of learning
15 Gagne’s Learning Types Shaping – learning by linking appropriate behaviors together and learning the reinforcing consequences that are linked to the behavior set.Reinforcing movement in the right directionVerbal association – linking a verbal response to an object or event in the environment. Stimulus becomes language.VocabularyTraining must start at the verbal association levelVerbal association : One measure of learning is the degree to which a person is able to identify and use the language of the subject matter appropriately. While a person may be able to perform the task if he is unable to communicate what it is he is doing, he lacks the communication skills.You must start all training at the verbal association level of all trainees. You must start a a common language in order to develop and understanding of more complex language. More complex language can be learned by linking new terms to previously learned terms through examples, terms and concepts already known.
16 Gagne’s Learning Types Multiple discrimination – learning to identify key aspects of differing situations and then apply the appropriate responses.Concept learning – learning to make a common response to situations that have common characteristics but are otherwise different.generalization
17 Gagne’s Learning Types Principle learning – learning to combined multiple concepts together and apply knowledge for use in specific situations.Required for procedural and strategic knowledgeProblem solving – learning that combines more than one principle to create a new response.Results in a higher-order principle.
18 Social Learning Theory Developed by A. BanduraBasis: learning can occur simply by observation of what is going on around you.Observing behavior and consequenceMotivation – want/desire consequenceAttention – visually appealing/differentRetention – store & rememberReproduce behaviorDemonstrate: attention: make training points stand out; focus attention; fun; interestingAsk for examples: walkingRetention – training design, meaningful symbols, practice and visualization
19 Resistance to Learning Fear of unknownFear of incompetenceFear of losing rewardsFear of lost influenceLost investmentsWhy do you resist learning?Trainers must build into programs ways to limit resistance to learning. Training is seen as an attach on people competencies.
20 Adult Learning Principles Adults learn differentlyAdult learner:PracticalityValue & UtilityLife-, Task, or Problem-centeredReady to LearnControl over LearningShare ExperiencesInvolvement in ProcessPracticality -Value & Utility – need to know what value this knowledge will have in there life.Life-, Task, or Problem-centeredReady to Learn – prerequisite knowledgeControl over Learning – pace, learning structure, flexibilityShare Experiences – learn from othersInvolvement of Process – participation, choice, persona experiences, critical thinkinginvolve with needs assessment, design, and evaluationAll learners are different.Table 3.5 pg. 118
21 ConclusionTraining professionals must understand the basics of performance and motivation in order to effectively design and deliver training programs.Learning is individual and each learner must be assessed individually in order for learning to occur.