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Learning, Motivation and Performance

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Presentation on theme: "Learning, Motivation and Performance"— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning, Motivation and Performance
Chapter #3

2 Learning Outcomes By the conclusion of this discussion you should:
More thoroughly understand what motivates people to learn and to perform. Be able to put together a 5 min training on a motivational theory Understand learning, how it progress’s, why it is resisted, and how differently people learn.

3 Factors Underlying Individual Performance
Aptitude Learning Role Perceptions Ability KSA Performance Motivation Effort In order to understand, motivation you must understand what performance is. This is a inclusive diagram of all the components of performance. In other words, performance is effected by all of the elements of this diagram. Discuss in detail. We will talk in detail about the components of motivation, learning and environment. Task Work Environment

4 Motivation Motivation: The direction, persistence and amount of effort expended by someone in order to achieve a desired outcome. Cognitive (mental structure: thinking, memory) Can’t be directly observed Defined in terms of effects on behavior Two groups of theories to explain motivation: Need Process Review. Students should already have an understanding of basic concept. Exercise: Divide into three groups. Have groups discuss the theories and then answer the following questions.

5 Group Break-out Instructions
Assumptions: Everyone has read the chapter. Each of you are protégés of the theorists. Discuss in depth the theory your group has been assigned. Come to a common understanding on the content. Identify: Underlying principles of theory Implications for trainers and the training process Outcome: Assign 2 members to give a five minute presentation to the class. Be creative in your training. Your objective is for your audience to understand the theory and its importance in the training arena. I.e. demonstrate how it works, give real life examples, experiment with your audience. Engage with the material. Don’t merely regurgitate the text. ERG Reinforcement Expectancy Scribe the key points on board, if the presenters don’t.

6 ERG Theory Developed by Clayton Alderfer 1969
Based on the work of A. Maslow Existence Needs – needs people have to sustain life (food, shelter, ,etc.) Relatedness Needs – needs people have to belong and feel accepted by others. Growth Needs – needs people have to accomplish goals and stretch their limits. ERG – achieved symotamiously Training Implications: *Satisfy basic needs: provide adequate comfort; food if necessary; environment *Build in opportunities to socialize and build relationships; share experiences; conduct ice breakers/team experiences. *Design programs to stretch people and their abilities; provide feedback & encouragement. Understand individuals’ needs & address them.

7 Reinforcement Theory S C R
Developed by E. L. Thorndike and modified by B. F. Skinner (operant conditioning) Law of effect – behavior followed by satisfying experiences will be repeated and behavior followed by dissatisfying experiences will be avoided. Operant Conditioning: Stimulus – object or event in the environment Response – stimulus behaves in a certain way based on the stimulus Consequence – response/behavior results in an outcome (positive or negative) Four types of consequences. S C R stimulus response consequence

8 Reinforcement Theory Four Consequences:
Positive Reinforcement – when a person’s behavior results in something desirable Negative Reinforcement – when a person’s behavior results in removal of something that is disliked or frustrating. Whether the reinforcement is positive or negative, it increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again. Training Implications: Understand relationship of S – R – C Build in opportunities to reinforce desired behaviors

9 Reinforcement Theory Four Consequences
Punishment- when something undesirable happens to you and it decreases the likelihood that your behavior will be repeated Punishment reduces the future likelihood of a behavior Extinction – a form of punishment that results from losing something that was desirable Discuss implications of punishment: doesn’t motivate people to do things only to not do things.. Requires constant policing and encourages people to get around the system. Behavior could be rewarding and therefore punishment must be severe to work. Someone must do the punishing. Positive or negative reinforcement are preferred.

10 Expectancy Theory Developed by Victor Vroom (1964)
Tries to describe the cognitive processes involved in deciding how to satisfy needs. Mathematical in nature Takes into account the fact that people are motivated by different things.

11 Expectancy Theory of Motivation
1 E E 2 V Expectancy X Instrumentality X Valence = Effort Effort Performance Perform. Outcome Value of Outcome Does trainee have ability to learn? Does the trainee believe that training outcomes promised will be delivered? Are outcomes promised valued by the trainee? Training Implications: Expectancy – assess level of expectancy during person NA; pre-training to deal with issues of expectancy; don’t move forward until training participants are comfortance that they have the ability to achieve desired performance. Valence – ensure outcome is of value; determine during needs assessment; communicate to trainees what they can and will get from completing training Instrumentality – gain and maintain management support and commitment; demonstrate support to trainees (management participation) Does trainee believe they can learn?

12 Self-Efficacy Feelings about one’s own competency
Associated with a belief that one can and will perform successfully. Low: concerns about failure High self-efficacy has been linked to better performance. Plays a role in expectancy theory Training can improve self-efficacy

13 Understanding Learning
Learning: relatively permanent change in cognition, resulting from experience and directly influencing behavior. Short-lived changes in cognition are not included Not dependent on behavior change Tied to memory (changing in neural functioning) Discuss Behaviorist approach – learning measured in terms of relatively permanent changes in behavior. Cognitive approach – learning is a change in the content, organization, and storage of information. Learning is a relatively permanent change in cognition occurring as a result of experience. Based on which theory you lean to, both effect education and training very differently. We will use a combination of the two in the definition of learning and try to incorporate a inclusive approach to training and education. Gagne’s approach is based on an integration of the two learning theories.

14 Gagne’s Learning Types
Signal Learning - generalized response (typically non-voluntary) to a signal in the environment Classical conditioning – Pavlov i.e. salivation Stimulus-response – single response to a single stimulus as a result of consequence to response Operant conditioning/reinforcement theory i.e. Touch a hot stove – learn not to touch the stove Signal learning and stimulus response are independent from the other types of learning. Learning 3-8 rely on lower levels of learning

15 Gagne’s Learning Types
Shaping – learning by linking appropriate behaviors together and learning the reinforcing consequences that are linked to the behavior set. Reinforcing movement in the right direction Verbal association – linking a verbal response to an object or event in the environment. Stimulus becomes language. Vocabulary Training must start at the verbal association level Verbal association : One measure of learning is the degree to which a person is able to identify and use the language of the subject matter appropriately. While a person may be able to perform the task if he is unable to communicate what it is he is doing, he lacks the communication skills. You must start all training at the verbal association level of all trainees. You must start a a common language in order to develop and understanding of more complex language. More complex language can be learned by linking new terms to previously learned terms through examples, terms and concepts already known.

16 Gagne’s Learning Types
Multiple discrimination – learning to identify key aspects of differing situations and then apply the appropriate responses. Concept learning – learning to make a common response to situations that have common characteristics but are otherwise different. generalization

17 Gagne’s Learning Types
Principle learning – learning to combined multiple concepts together and apply knowledge for use in specific situations. Required for procedural and strategic knowledge Problem solving – learning that combines more than one principle to create a new response. Results in a higher-order principle.

18 Social Learning Theory
Developed by A. Bandura Basis: learning can occur simply by observation of what is going on around you. Observing behavior and consequence Motivation – want/desire consequence Attention – visually appealing/different Retention – store & remember Reproduce behavior Demonstrate: attention: make training points stand out; focus attention; fun; interesting Ask for examples: walking Retention – training design, meaningful symbols, practice and visualization

19 Resistance to Learning
Fear of unknown Fear of incompetence Fear of losing rewards Fear of lost influence Lost investments Why do you resist learning? Trainers must build into programs ways to limit resistance to learning. Training is seen as an attach on people competencies.

20 Adult Learning Principles
Adults learn differently Adult learner: Practicality Value & Utility Life-, Task, or Problem-centered Ready to Learn Control over Learning Share Experiences Involvement in Process Practicality - Value & Utility – need to know what value this knowledge will have in there life. Life-, Task, or Problem-centered Ready to Learn – prerequisite knowledge Control over Learning – pace, learning structure, flexibility Share Experiences – learn from others Involvement of Process – participation, choice, persona experiences, critical thinking involve with needs assessment, design, and evaluation All learners are different. Table 3.5 pg. 118

21 Conclusion Training professionals must understand the basics of performance and motivation in order to effectively design and deliver training programs. Learning is individual and each learner must be assessed individually in order for learning to occur.

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