7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College A “Process” Educational Technology is a combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: Computers and their related technologies.
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Behaviorism Skinner - Behaviors and Consequences –Stimulus – Response –Reinforcement/Punishment Outcome oriented Believed strongly in “learning machines” (computers) that could monitor behavior and deliver reinforcements
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Contribution of Behaviorism Classroom management –Behavior Modification Programmed instruction –Drill & Practice with reinforcement
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Information Processing Memory & Storage Sensory>STM>LTM Biological basis of learning Dual Processing Practice, practice, practice –Distributed rather than massed –Elaborative rather than rote
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Directed Models Focus on teaching sequences of skills from lowest – highest Clear objectives and matching tests Individual more than group work Lectures, Skill worksheets, activities and texts with specific expected responses Based on Skinnerian model
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Theory into the Classroom Directed Instructional Strategies work well when... Students are motivated to learn Instruction well designed and routine Special needs children
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Problems with Directed Instruction Can students problem solve? Can students apply skills? What’s this got to do with my life? –Isolation –Not authentic Can students cooperate with others? –Cultural differences
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Constructivist Theorists John Dewey 1859-1952 Political liberal - Philosopher Curriculum should arise from student’s interests Curriculum should be integrated Education is growth not an end in itself Education occurs though it’s connection to real life Learning should be hands-on
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Jean Piaget (1896-1980) 4 stages of cognitive development Learning by assimilation or accommodation Teaching with concrete examples
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) Cognitive development is directly linked to social development –Individual differences –Personal creativity –Influence of culture –Language use Zone of proximal development – Scaffolding by adults
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Jerome Bruner Still alive! Children’s stages of cognitive development Benchmarks of cognitive development Discovery Learning
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Constructivist Models Focus on learning through posing problems, possible answers, developing products and presentations Abilities to problem solve Research Skills & Exploration Stress group work over Individual work Alternative, authentic assessments e.g. portfolios
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Theory into the Classroom: Constructivism Solve real life problems Student’s construct knowledge themselves NOT simply by receiving it from knowledgeable teachers Theorists vary on their opinions of how much structure student projects should have.
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Problems with Constructivism It is difficult for teachers to certify individuals skill learning Prerequisite skills may be lacking Students may not choose the most effective instruction Not all topics suit constructivist methods Skills may not transfer to practical situations
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College How Constructivism Impacts Curriculum Elimination of a standardized curriculum Use curricula customized to the students' prior knowledge Emphasizes hands-on problem solving.
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College How Constructivism Impacts Assessment Elimination of grades and standardized testing Assessment part of the learning process Students play a large role in judging their own progress
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Technology Integration “Integrating educational technology is the process of determining which electronic tools and which methods for implementing them are appropriate for given classroom situation and problems.” M.D.Roblyer 2002
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Technology Integration – Directed Models To remedy identified weaknesses To promote fluency or automaticity of prerequisite skills
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Technology Integration - Constructivist To foster creativity To increase transfer of knowledge to problem solving To foster group cooperation To allow for multiple intelligences e.g. Gardner
7/3/2015 Musgrove – Broward College Technology Integration – all theories Generates motivation to learn Optimize scarce personnel and material resources To make it easier for students to create and adjust assignments To develop information literacy and visual literacy