2 Behavioral Theorist-B.F. Skinner Skinner developed the operant conditioning model.He believed two types of learning existed: classical conditioning and operant conditioningSkinner says that a learner “does not passively absorb knowledge from the world around him but must play an active role.”Learners learn by doing, experiencing, and engaging in repeated trial and error.
3 Behavioral TheoryBehaviorism operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.”All behavior is caused by external stimuli.All behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness.
4 Operant ConditioningWhen an organism does something, the consequences of that behavior are reinforcing, it is likely to be done again. What counts as reinforcement, of course, (whether positive or negative), is based on the evidence of the repeated behavior, which makes the whole argument rather circular.
6 Operant Conditioning simply put… reinforcing what you want people to do again; ignoring or punish what you want people to stop doing.
7 Cognitive Theorist- Robert Gange is best known for his Nine Events of Instruction.Gagne believes that effective instruction should reach beyond traditional learning theories.He supports cumulative teaching that transitions from simple to complex skills.This hierarchical framework is widely used in many instructional environments.
8 Gange’s Nine Events of Instruction Gain AttentionInform Learner of ObjectiveRecall Prior KnowledgePresent MaterialProvide Guided LearningElicit PerformanceProvide FeedbackAssess PerformanceEnhance Retention and Transfer
9 Cognitivism TheoryThe cognitivist model essentially argues that the “black box” of the mind should be opened in order to understand how people learn.The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer).Learning is a change in mental representations and associations brought by experiences.
10 How learning theories impact teaching-behaviorism. Breaking down the skills and information to be learned into small units.Checking student's work regularly and providing feedback as well as encouragement(reinforcement).Teaching "out of context." Behaviorists generally believe that students can be taught best when the focus is directly on the content to be taught.Direct or "teacher centered" instruction, teacher controlled teaching tend to dominate behavioral classrooms.
11 How learning theories impact teaching-cognitivism. Learning is active.Students explore various possible response patterns and choose between them.Learning can be intrinsically rewarding.Knowledge is a matter of acquiring informationUnderstanding is a matter of creating new patterns.Applications require the learner to see relationships among problems.Students must direct their own learning.
12 Behavioral Objectives Manifestations in adult learningBehavioral ObjectivesCompetency based educationSkill development and trainingCognitive DevelopmentIntelligence,learning and memory as function of ageLearning how to learn
13 Congitivism and Adult Learning Cognitivism, like constructivism, views the learner as an active participant in the knowledgeacquisition process. Therefore, instruction should be designed to fully engage the learner. Todo so, instructional materials can utilize demonstrations and illustrative examples.The use of various media, such as videos and graphics, may also be helpful in engaging thelearner's cognitive processes.
14 Behaviorism and Adult Learning Behaviorist Adult Education has its roots in modern philosophic and scientific movements.Behaviorism in adult education emphasizes such concepts as control, behavioral modification, learning through reinforcement and management by objectives.
15 ReferencesAtherton, J.S. (2005). Learning and Teaching: Behaviourism. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from the World Wide Web:Behavioral Theories. An Electronic Textbook on Instructional Technology. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from the World Wide Web:Killpatrick, L. (2001). Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction. In B. Hoffman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from World Wide Web: about:blankLearning-Theories.com. (2007). Behaviorsm. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from the World Wide Web:Learning-Theories.com. (2007). Cognitivism. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from the World Wide Web:Smith, M. K. (1999). Learning Theory. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from the World Wide Web:Spurgeon, Linda P., Moore Gary E. (1997). The Educational Philosophies of Training and Development Professors, Leaders, and Practitioners. Journal of Technology Studies, 22.2, Retrieved February 25, 2008, from the World Wide Web:Tway, Duane C. (2003, September 22). Cognitivism, Constructivism, and Work Performance The Free Library. (2003). Retrieved February 25, 2008, from the World Wide Web: constructivism, and work performance-a