11What is Theoretical Perspective A theoretical perspective is a non- explanatory general framework.It is meant to define a point of view within a discipline, which may include basic assumptions that draw attention to aspects of a phenomenon.A theory is a proposed relationship between two or more concepts, often cause and effect.theories are just a educated guess as to how and why a situation might occur
12Can you read this?This is bcuseae the huammn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the word as a wlohe. Amzanig, huh?
14ExpectationsB1.1 explain human development throughout the lifespan according to structuralist theoretical perspectives (e.g., the stage theories of Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget)B1.2 explain human development throughout the lifespan according to information-processing and learning theoretical perspectives (e.g., the theories of Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner, John B. Watson, Albert Bandura)B1.3 explain human development throughout the lifespan according to systemic and humanistic theoretical perspectives (e.g., the theories of Urie Bronfenbrenner, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Bonnie Burstow, Barbara Rogoff)
15Psychodynamic Perspective Focuses on the inner personBehavior is motivated by inner forces, memories and conflicts that are generally beyond people's awareness and control.Sigmund FreudBecame convinced that patients difficulties were due to mental rather than physical problems.Proposed that distress is due to problems that datedback to childhood.Erik EriksonSuggests that developmental change occurs throughout our lives in eight distinct stages.The stages emerge in fixed pattern and they are similar for all people.
16The Behavioral Perspective Considering the outer person.Suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment.John B. Watson - classical and operant conditioningPsychology can never be as objective as chemistry or biology. Consciousness is not that easy.“I can take a child and make him into anything, a beggar, a doctor, a thief.”B.F. SkinnerBelieved that all behavior is a result of rewards and punishments in the past.Ivan Pavlovshowed automatic/involuntary behavior in learned responses to specific stimuli in the environment.Created “Classical Conditioning.”Albert Bandura – social cognitive learning theoristsBehavior is learned through observation and imitation
17The Cognitive Perspective Examining the roots of understandingFocuses on the process that allow people to know, understand and think about the world.Jean Piaget’s - Cognitive theoryStudies children’s cognitive development.Studies how we attend, perceive, think, remember, solve problems and arrive at beliefs.Lev Vygotsky’s - Sociocultural theoryProposes that full understanding of development is impossible without taking into account the culture in which children develop.
18The Humanistic Perspective Concentrates on the unique qualities of human beingsPeople have the natural tendency to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior.Barbara Rogofffocuses on the social and collaborative nature of learning and the different forms of guidance that an adult provides a childCarl RogersFormer minister; believed all people strive for perfection; some interrupted by a bad environment.Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of NeedsPeople’s struggle is to be the best they possibly can, known as self-actualization.
19The Evolutionary Perspective Believes that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution and is characterized by critical and sensitive periods.Charles DarwinStudied the evolution of finches and expands his study to include humans.Konrad LorenzHis work concentrates on human behavioral genetics
20Sociocultural Perspective Emphasizes the system of supportSeeks to explain individual knowledge, development, and competencies in terms of guidance, support and structure provided by society.Urie BronfenbrennerAccording to U. Bronfenbrenner each person is affected by interactions among a number of overlapping ecosystems.