A theoretical perspective is a non- explanatory general framework. It is meant to define a point of view within a discipline, which may include basic assumptions that draw attention to aspects of a phenomenon. A theory is a proposed relationship between two or more concepts, often cause and effect.theoryrelationshipcause and effect theories are just a educated guess as to how and why a situation might occur
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B1.1 explain human development throughout the lifespan according to structuralist theoretical perspectives (e.g., the stage theories of Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget) B1.2 explain human development throughout the lifespan according to information-processing and learning theoretical perspectives (e.g., the theories of Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner, John B. Watson, Albert Bandura) B1.3 explain human development throughout the lifespan according to systemic and humanistic theoretical perspectives (e.g., the theories of Urie Bronfenbrenner, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Bonnie Burstow, Barbara Rogoff)
Focuses on the inner person Behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories and conflicts that are generally beyond people's awareness and control. Sigmund Freud Became convinced that patients difficulties were due to mental rather than physical problems. Proposed that distress is due to problems that dated back to childhood. Erik Erikson Suggests that developmental change occurs throughout our lives in eight distinct stages. The stages emerge in fixed pattern and they are similar for all people.
Considering the outer person. Suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment. John B. Watson - classical and operant conditioning Psychology can never be as objective as chemistry or biology. Consciousness is not that easy. “I can take a child and make him into anything, a beggar, a doctor, a thief.” B.F. Skinner Believed that all behavior is a result of rewards and punishments in the past. Ivan Pavlov showed automatic/involuntary behavior in learned responses to specific stimuli in the environment. Created “Classical Conditioning.” Albert Bandura – social cognitive learning theorists Behavior is learned through observation and imitation
Examining the roots of understanding Focuses on the process that allow people to know, understand and think about the world. Jean Piaget’s - Cognitive theory Studies children’s cognitive development. Studies how we attend, perceive, think, remember, solve problems and arrive at beliefs. Lev Vygotsky’s - Sociocultural theory Proposes that full understanding of development is impossible without taking into account the culture in which children develop.
Concentrates on the unique qualities of human beings People have the natural tendency to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior. Barbara Rogoff focuses on the social and collaborative nature of learning and the different forms of guidance that an adult provides a child Carl Rogers Former minister; believed all people strive for perfection; some interrupted by a bad environment. Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of Needs People’s struggle is to be the best they possibly can, known as self-actualization.
Believes that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution and is characterized by critical and sensitive periods. Charles Darwin Studied the evolution of finches and expands his study to include humans. Konrad Lorenz His work concentrates on human behavioral genetics
Emphasizes the system of support Seeks to explain individual knowledge, development, and competencies in terms of guidance, support and structure provided by society. Urie Bronfenbrenner According to U. Bronfenbrenner each person is affected by interactions among a number of overlapping ecosystems.