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HPD 4C Working with School Age Children and Adolescents - Mrs. Filinov.

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Presentation on theme: "HPD 4C Working with School Age Children and Adolescents - Mrs. Filinov."— Presentation transcript:

1 HPD 4C Working with School Age Children and Adolescents - Mrs. Filinov

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11  A theoretical perspective is a non- explanatory general framework.  It is meant to define a point of view within a discipline, which may include basic assumptions that draw attention to aspects of a phenomenon.  A theory is a proposed relationship between two or more concepts, often cause and effect.theoryrelationshipcause and effect  theories are just a educated guess as to how and why a situation might occur

12  This is bcuseae the huammn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the word as a wlohe. Amzanig, huh?

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14  B1.1 explain human development throughout the lifespan according to structuralist theoretical perspectives (e.g., the stage theories of Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget)  B1.2 explain human development throughout the lifespan according to information-processing and learning theoretical perspectives (e.g., the theories of Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner, John B. Watson, Albert Bandura)  B1.3 explain human development throughout the lifespan according to systemic and humanistic theoretical perspectives (e.g., the theories of Urie Bronfenbrenner, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Bonnie Burstow, Barbara Rogoff)

15  Focuses on the inner person  Behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories and conflicts that are generally beyond people's awareness and control.  Sigmund Freud  Became convinced that patients difficulties were due to mental rather than physical problems.  Proposed that distress is due to problems that dated back to childhood.  Erik Erikson  Suggests that developmental change occurs throughout our lives in eight distinct stages.  The stages emerge in fixed pattern and they are similar for all people.

16  Considering the outer person.  Suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment.  John B. Watson - classical and operant conditioning  Psychology can never be as objective as chemistry or biology. Consciousness is not that easy.  “I can take a child and make him into anything, a beggar, a doctor, a thief.”  B.F. Skinner  Believed that all behavior is a result of rewards and punishments in the past.  Ivan Pavlov  showed automatic/involuntary behavior in learned responses to specific stimuli in the environment.  Created “Classical Conditioning.”  Albert Bandura – social cognitive learning theorists  Behavior is learned through observation and imitation

17  Examining the roots of understanding  Focuses on the process that allow people to know, understand and think about the world.  Jean Piaget’s - Cognitive theory  Studies children’s cognitive development.  Studies how we attend, perceive, think, remember, solve problems and arrive at beliefs.  Lev Vygotsky’s - Sociocultural theory  Proposes that full understanding of development is impossible without taking into account the culture in which children develop.

18  Concentrates on the unique qualities of human beings  People have the natural tendency to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior.  Barbara Rogoff  focuses on the social and collaborative nature of learning and the different forms of guidance that an adult provides a child  Carl Rogers  Former minister; believed all people strive for perfection; some interrupted by a bad environment.  Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of Needs  People’s struggle is to be the best they possibly can, known as self-actualization.

19  Believes that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution and is characterized by critical and sensitive periods.  Charles Darwin  Studied the evolution of finches and expands his study to include humans.  Konrad Lorenz  His work concentrates on human behavioral genetics

20  Emphasizes the system of support  Seeks to explain individual knowledge, development, and competencies in terms of guidance, support and structure provided by society.  Urie Bronfenbrenner  According to U. Bronfenbrenner each person is affected by interactions among a number of overlapping ecosystems.


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