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Behavior Therapy J.B. Watson:

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1 Behavior Therapy J.B. Watson:
Emphasized the overriding importance of the environmental events, rejecting covert aspects of the individual. He claimed that all behavior could be understood as a result of learning. (Nature vs. Nurture)

A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is presented repeatedly with one that reflexively elicits a particular response so the neutral stimulus will eventually elicit the response itself. Ivan Pavlov

3 OPERANT CONDITIONING A type of learning in which behavior is increased or decreased by systemically changing its consequences.

4 B.F. Skinner Insisted that overt behavior was the only acceptable subject of scientific investigation and rejected mentalistic (unconsciousness and phenomenology) concepts

Overt Behavior: Actions that can be directly observed by others. Positive reinforcement: The process by which the introduction of a stimulus has a consequence of a behavior that increases the likelihood that the behavior will be performed.

Shaping: Gradually reinforcing certain parts of a behavior to more closely approximate the desired behavior. Generalization: Transferring the response from one type of stimuli to similar stimuli.

Discrimination: Responding differentially to stimuli that are similarly based on different cues or antecedent events. Extinction: The process of no longer presenting a reinforcement. It is used to decrease or eliminate certain behaviors.

8 SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY (or Social Learning Theory)
Albert Bandura: Believed behavior was based on three interacting systems; a) external stimulus, b) external reinforcement, and most importantly, c) cognitive mediational processes.

9 SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY (or Social Learning Theory)
Reciprocal Determinism: Psychological functioning involves a reciprocal interaction among three interlocking sets of influences: behavior, cognitive processes, and environmental factors.

A type of learning is which people are influenced by observing the behaviors of others. Covert behavior: Behavior that others cannot directly perceive, such as thinking or feeling.

Attentional processes: The act of perceiving or watching something and learning from it. Retention processes: This basically refers to remembering that which has been observed. Motor reproduction processes: This refers to translating what one has seen into action using motor skills.

Motivational processes: For observations to be put into action and then continued for some time, reinforcement must be present. Reinforcement brings about motivation. Self-Efficacy: The individual’s perceptions of their ability to deal with different types of events.

“It is fundamental to behavior therapy that the client should have the major say in setting treatment goals, it is important that the client is fully informed, and consents to and participates in setting goals. Provide a direction to counseling Provide a basis for selecting and using strategies & interventions. Provide a framework for evaluating the outcome.

14 Process of Setting Goals
Counselor explains the purpose of goals. Client specifies the positive changes desired as a result of counseling. Together they explore whether the goals are realistic. They discuss advantages and disadvantages of the goals. On the basis of the information obtained about client-stated goals, the counselor and the client make one of the following decisions: to continue counseling, to reconsider the client’s goals, or the seek a referral.

15 Advantages of goal setting
It increases the chances of making the counselor/client alliance operational. It emphasizes the importance of their active participation in the process, rather than fostering an attitude of being a passive spectator. It is the basic link between whatever therapeutic procedures or techniques are used and the concrete goals of the client.

16 Therapist’s Function and Role
Behavior therapists must assume an active, directive role in treatment. Behavior therapists function as teacher, director, and expert in prescribing curative procedures that will lead to improved behavior.

17 Therapist’s Function and Role
Use techniques such as summarization, reflection, clarification, and open-ended questions. They focus on specifics, systematically getting information about specific antecedents, the dimensions of the problem behavior, and the consequences of the problem. (Goldried & Davison, 1976)

18 MODELING TECHNIQUES The therapist’s role is also modeling behavior for the client. Because clients often view their therapist as worthy of emulation, they pattern attitudes, values, beliefs, and behavior after him or her. Therapists need to be aware of the power they play in this process.

19 Relationship between Therapist and Client
Exemplified by warmth, empathy, authenticity, permissiveness, and acceptance as necessary but not sufficient conditions for behavioral change. Behavior therapists are more self-disclosing when it benefits the motivation of the client.

20 Therapist’s Function and Role
Live modeling: Symbolic modeling: Role-playing: Participant modeling: Covert modeling:

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