2Theories… what are they good for? UnderstandingGeneralizationA basis for decision makingPredicting future eventsDefine the next questions to ask
3Theories Good theory criteria: Logically Emperically sound Clear, testable and parsimoniousCover a reasonably large area of science and should integrate previous research
4Theories of Human Development A developmental theory is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.
5Nature versus Nurture The questions: Which? How? How much? Behaviorist PscychoanalyticHow much?Developmentalist/Developmental Contextualism
6Theories of Human Development Psychoanalytic TheoryA theory of human developmentirrational, unconscious drives and motives underlie human behavior.often originating in childhoodPsychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)
7Psychoanalytic Theory- Freud LibidoPersonality has 3 parts that change over time:IdEgoSuperego
10Psychoanalytic-Freud Optimum developmentEmphasis on the formative role of the early experienceWhat do you think? How important are the first 5 or 6 years in shaping our personality?
11Psychoanalytic - Erikson A student of Freud’sFollowed Freud’s stage theoryDevelopment = Inner instincts X Cultural/social demandsThroughout the lifespanDevelopment occurs as individuals resolve 8 crises
12Psychoanalytic- Erikson 8 crisis:Trust V. MistrustAutonomy v. shame and doubtInitiative v. guiltIndustry v. inferiorityIdentity v. role confusionIntimacy v. isolationGeneration v. stagnationIntegrity v. despair
14Theories of Human Development BehaviorismObservable behaviorConditioning
15The Elements of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR)Naturally occurring stimulus (US) evokes a naturally occurring response (UR)Neutral stimulus (NS)Pairing neutral and unconditioned stimuliNS and US presented togetherNS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) that produces a conditioned response (CR)« Discussion TipAsk students to come up with their own examples of classical conditioning. Then have them write their examples on the board, labeling the different components. Have the class analyze the examples for accuracy.
16Theories of Human Development Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner (1904–1990)Desired outcomes = more likely to repeatUndesired outcomes = less likely to repeat
17Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive reinforcementBehavior leads to addition of something pleasantNegative reinforcementBehavior is rewarded by the removal of something unpleasantNegative reinforcement is not punishment“Negative” means removing somethingRemember that reinforcement increases behavior
18Positive and Negative Punishment Punishment is an unpleasant consequence that leads to a decrease in behaviorPositive punishmentAddition of something unpleasant that decreases behaviorNegative punishmentRemoval of something pleasant that decreases behavior« Teaching TipCaution students not to make the very common mistake of confusing negative reinforcement with punishment. To reinforce this, have them generate original examples of the four consequences that can follow a behavioral response.« Discussion TipAsk students to come up with examples of how they have been conditioned through instrumental conditioning in the past. Then have them explain how these examples fit with the Law of Effect.
19Theories of Human Development Social Learning Theory - Albert Bandura (b. 1925)An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior.Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them.Self-efficacy- (how effective people think they are when it comes to changing themselves or altering their social context.
20Social Learning Theory and Cognition Four steps to modelingAttentionRetentionReproduction of behaviorMotivation« Discussion TipAsk students to discuss why kids are more likely to be found playing Batman on the playground than Barney. Use this to lead into a discussion of what characteristics make a model attractive to children (e.g., being powerful).
21Theories of Human Development Cognitive TheoryThoughts and expectations profoundly affect action.Focuses on changes in how people think over time.Jean Piaget (1896–1980)
23Theories of Human Development Assimilation, in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideasAccommodation, in which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences
24Theories of Human Development Systems TheoryChange in one part of a person, family, or society affects every aspect of developmentEcological systems approach- Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917–2005)The person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life.
25Theories of Human Development Five Components of Bronfenbrenner’s Systemmicrosystems (elements of the person’s immediate surroundings, such as family and peer group)exosystems (local institutions such as school and church)macrosystems (the larger social setting, including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes)
26Theories of Human Development chronosystem (literally, “time system”), which affects the other three systemsmesosystem, consisting of the connections among the other systems