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THEORIES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. Theories… what are they good for?  Understanding  Generalization  A basis for decision making  Predicting future events.

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Presentation on theme: "THEORIES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. Theories… what are they good for?  Understanding  Generalization  A basis for decision making  Predicting future events."— Presentation transcript:


2 Theories… what are they good for?  Understanding  Generalization  A basis for decision making  Predicting future events  Define the next questions to ask

3 Theories  Good theory criteria:  Logically  Emperically sound  Clear, testable and parsimonious  Cover a reasonably large area of science and should integrate previous research

4 Theories of Human Development A developmental theory is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.

5 Nature versus Nurture  The questions:  Which?  Behaviorist  How?  Pscychoanalytic  How much?  Developmentalist/Developmental Contextualism

6 Theories of Human Development Psychoanalytic Theory  A theory of human development  irrational, unconscious drives and motives underlie human behavior.  often originating in childhood  Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)

7 Psychoanalytic Theory- Freud  Libido  Personality has 3 parts that change over time:  Id  Ego  Superego

8 Psychoanalytic-Freud Defense Mechanisms  Repression  Reaction Formation  ature=relmfu ature=relmfu  Projection  Regression  Fixation

9 © 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers Freud’s Psychosexual Stages

10 Psychoanalytic-Freud  Optimum development  Emphasis on the formative role of the early experience  What do you think? How important are the first 5 or 6 years in shaping our personality?

11 Psychoanalytic - Erikson  A student of Freud’s  Followed Freud’s stage theory  Development = Inner instincts X Cultural/social demands  Throughout the lifespan  Development occurs as individuals resolve 8 crises

12 Psychoanalytic- Erikson  8 crisis:  Trust V. Mistrust  Autonomy v. shame and doubt  Initiative v. guilt  Industry v. inferiority  Identity v. role confusion  Intimacy v. isolation  Generation v. stagnation  Integrity v. despair


14 Theories of Human Development Behaviorism  Observable behavior  Conditioning

15 The Elements of Classical Conditioning  Unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR)  Naturally occurring stimulus (US) evokes a naturally occurring response (UR)  Neutral stimulus (NS)  Pairing neutral and unconditioned stimuli  NS and US presented together  NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) that produces a conditioned response (CR)

16 Theories of Human Development Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner (1904–1990) Desired outcomes = more likely to repeat Undesired outcomes = less likely to repeat

17 Positive and Negative Reinforcement  Positive reinforcement  Behavior leads to addition of something pleasant  Negative reinforcement  Behavior is rewarded by the removal of something unpleasant  Negative reinforcement is not punishment  “Negative” means removing something  Remember that reinforcement increases behavior

18 Positive and Negative Punishment  Punishment is an unpleasant consequence that leads to a decrease in behavior  Positive punishment  Addition of something unpleasant that decreases behavior  Negative punishment  Removal of something pleasant that decreases behavior

19 Theories of Human Development Social Learning Theory - Albert Bandura (b. 1925)  An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior.  Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them.  Self-efficacy- (how effective people think they are when it comes to changing themselves or altering their social context.

20 Social Learning Theory and Cognition  Four steps to modeling  Attention  Retention  Reproduction of behavior  Motivation

21 Theories of Human Development Cognitive Theory  Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action.  Focuses on changes in how people think over time.  Jean Piaget (1896–1980)

22 © 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers Cognitive Theories Jean Piaget  Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor Stage 2. Preoperational Stage 3. Concrete Operational Stage 4. Formal Operational Stage

23 Theories of Human Development  Assimilation, in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas  Accommodation, in which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences

24 Theories of Human Development Systems Theory  Change in one part of a person, family, or society affects every aspect of development Ecological systems approach- Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917–2005)  The person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life.

25 Theories of Human Development Five Components of Bronfenbrenner’s System  microsystems (elements of the person’s immediate surroundings, such as family and peer group)  exosystems (local institutions such as school and church)  macrosystems (the larger social setting, including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes)

26 Theories of Human Development  chronosystem (literally, “time system”), which affects the other three systems  mesosystem, consisting of the connections among the other systems

27 © 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers Bioecological Theory Urie Bronfenbrenner  Explains development in terms of relationships between people and their environments  Contexts  Macrosystem  Exosystem  Microsystem  Mesosystem  Biological Context

28 © 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers Comparing Theories

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