Presentation on theme: "THEORIES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. Theories… what are they good for? Understanding Generalization A basis for decision making Predicting future events."— Presentation transcript:
Theories… what are they good for? Understanding Generalization A basis for decision making Predicting future events Define the next questions to ask
Theories Good theory criteria: Logically Emperically sound Clear, testable and parsimonious Cover a reasonably large area of science and should integrate previous research
Theories of Human Development A developmental theory is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older.
Nature versus Nurture The questions: Which? Behaviorist How? Pscychoanalytic How much? Developmentalist/Developmental Contextualism
Theories of Human Development Psychoanalytic Theory A theory of human development irrational, unconscious drives and motives underlie human behavior. often originating in childhood Psychoanalytic theory originated with Sigmund Freud (1856– 1939)
Psychoanalytic Theory- Freud Libido Personality has 3 parts that change over time: Id Ego Superego
Psychoanalytic-Freud Optimum development Emphasis on the formative role of the early experience What do you think? How important are the first 5 or 6 years in shaping our personality?
Psychoanalytic - Erikson A student of Freud’s Followed Freud’s stage theory Development = Inner instincts X Cultural/social demands Throughout the lifespan Development occurs as individuals resolve 8 crises
Psychoanalytic- Erikson 8 crisis: Trust V. Mistrust Autonomy v. shame and doubt Initiative v. guilt Industry v. inferiority Identity v. role confusion Intimacy v. isolation Generation v. stagnation Integrity v. despair
Theories of Human Development Behaviorism Observable behavior Conditioning
The Elements of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR) Naturally occurring stimulus (US) evokes a naturally occurring response (UR) Neutral stimulus (NS) Pairing neutral and unconditioned stimuli NS and US presented together NS becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) that produces a conditioned response (CR)
Theories of Human Development Operant conditioning - B.F. Skinner (1904–1990) Desired outcomes = more likely to repeat Undesired outcomes = less likely to repeat
Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive reinforcement Behavior leads to addition of something pleasant Negative reinforcement Behavior is rewarded by the removal of something unpleasant Negative reinforcement is not punishment “Negative” means removing something Remember that reinforcement increases behavior
Positive and Negative Punishment Punishment is an unpleasant consequence that leads to a decrease in behavior Positive punishment Addition of something unpleasant that decreases behavior Negative punishment Removal of something pleasant that decreases behavior
Theories of Human Development Social Learning Theory - Albert Bandura (b. 1925) An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Modeling- people learn by observing other people and then copying them. Self-efficacy- (how effective people think they are when it comes to changing themselves or altering their social context.
Social Learning Theory and Cognition Four steps to modeling Attention Retention Reproduction of behavior Motivation
Theories of Human Development Cognitive Theory Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect action. Focuses on changes in how people think over time. Jean Piaget (1896–1980)
Theories of Human Development Assimilation, in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas Accommodation, in which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences
Theories of Human Development Systems Theory Change in one part of a person, family, or society affects every aspect of development Ecological systems approach- Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917–2005) The person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life.
Theories of Human Development Five Components of Bronfenbrenner’s System microsystems (elements of the person’s immediate surroundings, such as family and peer group) exosystems (local institutions such as school and church) macrosystems (the larger social setting, including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes)
Theories of Human Development chronosystem (literally, “time system”), which affects the other three systems mesosystem, consisting of the connections among the other systems