Presentation on theme: "Ch 11 Enlightenment Ideas and Reforms. Two Views on Government 1) Hobbes- Conflict is a part of human nature War of everyone v. everyone without government."— Presentation transcript:
Two Views on Government 1) Hobbes- Conflict is a part of human nature War of everyone v. everyone without government Life would be “nasty, brutish and short”
Two Views on Government 2) Locke – Human nature is shaped by experiences. Humans learn from their experiences.
Thomas Hobbes The book Leviathan Must give individual rights up to a strong ruler SOCIAL CONTRACT Ruler needs total power, citizens bound to obey
John Locke Most influential philosopher People are shaped by their experiences People will always learn from experience & choose to improve themselves
John Locke All people born free & equal, with 3 natural rights LIFE, LIBERTY, and PROPERTY Purpose of govt. – to protect natural rights People can choose to overthrow a govt. that fails to do this
John Locke Father of modern political thinking Govt. power comes from the consent (OK) of the people and so does the right to rebel
“During the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition called war... as if of every man against every man.... The notions of right and wrong, justice and injustice have there no place.... No arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death: and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” - Thomas Hobbes
The French Salon and the Philosophes Madame de Pompadour Salons: gatherings for aristocrats to discuss new theories and ideas Philosophes: French Enlightenment thinkers who attended the salons
French Salons Small gatherings of men and women in France during the Enlightenment. People discussed science, politics and religion. (Spread enlightenment ideas).
Philosophes Greatest thinkers of their day Social critics of the period in France Apply reason to all aspects of life
Philosophes Opposed traditions of absolute monarchy and divine right Objected to special privileges of nobility and clergy
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) Philosophized on the nature of society and government The Social Contract (People are naturally good natured). Popular Sovreignty – believed government should be created and controlled by the people.
Baron de Montesquieu (1689–1755) Influenced by Locke French noble and political philosopher The Spirit of the Laws (Described his idea of perfect government).
Montesquieu (continued) 3 branches of government Separation of powers Constitutional monarchy
Voltaire (1694–1778) Real name: Francois- Marie Arouet Most famous philosophe Wrote plays, essays, poetry, philosophy, and books Wrote stinging satires about the French monarchy Championed social, political, and religious tolerance “I may disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”
Mary Wollstonecraft British writer who argued for the rights of women during the Enlightenment. A Vindication of the Rights of Women
The Encyclopédie Major achievement of the philosophes. First edition was 28 volumes. Leading philosophes contributed articles covering nearly every possible subject. Frontspiece to the Encyclopédie
The Encyclopédie (continued) Edited by Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert Banned by the Catholic Church Encyclopédie editor Denis Diderot