Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment. I. The Beginnings of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment - 18 th century intellectual movement emphasizing reason and scientific method."— Presentation transcript:
I. The Beginnings of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment - 18 th century intellectual movement emphasizing reason and scientific method for all aspects of life The popularization of science and reason leads intellectuals to apply what has been learned in science to human nature There is a growing skepticism toward religion
Learning Objectives List the major causes of the Enlightenment in Europe Summarize the major ideas of the Enlightenment philosophers
I. The Beginnings of the Enlightenment (cont.) Extensive travel and exploration shows intellectuals other ways of life “noble savage” Cultural Relativism – the belief that no culture is superior to another because culture is custom, not reason People begin to challenge the idea of absolutism and role of Kings/government Enlightenment ideas begin with English philosophers Locke and Hobbes works on geovernment
Thomas Hobbes Believed all people were naturally selfish and wicked. Believed without government to protect people, there would be chaos. Believed that an all powerful government was necessary to protect from chaos Social Contract- Contract between a society and the government in which people willingly give up their rights to a strong ruler in exchange for law and order Leviathan
John Locke Believed all people born free and equal with three natural rights: life, liberty, and property. Purpose of government is to protect these rights
II. The Philosophes These were French writers, professors, journalists, economists, politicians, who were social reformers mostly centered in Paris Believed one could apply reason to all aspects of life 1. Reason 2. Nature 3. Happiness 4. Progress 5. Liberty
Montesquieu Separation of Powers: believed government should be split into three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. Goal was to keep government from becoming too powerful!!!
Voltaire French philosopher who believed in religious freedom, political freedom and freedom of speech. He spoke out against inequality, injustice, and the slave trade.
I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.
Denis Diderot Denis Diderot produced a 28- volume set known as the Encyclopedia.
Jean Jacques Rousseau Believed that man was born free and that liberty was everyone’s birthright. He said that the only legitimate government was one ruled directly by the people. Social Contract- agreement made by free people to create a government
Adam Smith Scottish economist who advocates laissez faire- government stays out of business, “let people do as they choose” Smith writes The Wealth of Nations- groundwork for capitalism
Mary Wollstonecraft writes Vindication of the Rights of Women and is often viewed as the founder of modern feminism
Cesare Beccaria He believed that laws existed to keep order in society, not to avenge crimes He believed a person accused of a crime should receive a speedy trial. He thought any acts of torture and the death penalty should be abolished.