Presentation on theme: "Genetics and Biotechnology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA TechnologyGenetic Engineering
2 Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA TechnologyGenetic EngineeringTechnology that involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert the DNA of another organism
3 The smaller fragments move farther faster than the larger ones. Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyAn electric current is used to separate DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments in a process called gel electrophoresis.When an electric current is applied, the DNA fragments move toward the positive end of the gel.The smaller fragments move farther faster than the larger ones.
6 Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA TechnologyGel electrophoresisThe unique pattern created based on the size of the DNA fragment can be compared to known DNA fragments for identification.
7 DNA fingerprintingGel Electrophoresis is an example of how this is done.Every person is genetically different, so DNA fingerprints are different except for identical twins.
8 DNA fingerprinting applications used to identify or eliminate suspectsdetermine paternity of a child, or establish other family relationshipsidentify a deceased person
9 Genetically engineered organisms are used Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyGenetically engineered organisms are usedto study the expression of a particular gene.to select traits that might be beneficial to humans.Genetically engineeredbollworm
10 Genome total DNA in the nucleus of each cell. Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyDNA ToolsGenome total DNA in the nucleus of each cell.Transgenic Tobacco Plant with Firefly gene
11 Isolate specific genes of the genome. Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyRestriction enzymes recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences and cuts the DNA within the sequence.Isolate specific genes of the genome.Used for recombinant DNA or gene cloning.
12 EcoRI specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC. Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyEcoRI specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC.The ends of the DNA fragments, called sticky ends
13 Restriction Enzyme Ends Some ends are considered blunt also because it does not leave “open” nucleotides
14 Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA TechnologyThe newly generated DNA molecule with DNA from different sources is called recombinant DNA.
15 Genetic Engineering AKA: Recombinant DNA or transgenic organisms DNA is split(restriction enzymes) /new inserted
16 Applications of recombinant DNA Bacteria: used to produce hormones and antibioticsPlants: made to be resistant to herbicidesAnimals: cloning, replacement of genes which cause disorders
17 Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA TechnologySome of the bacterial cells take up the recombinant plasmid DNA through a process called transformation.
18 Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA TechnologyLarge numbers of identical bacteria, each containing the inserted DNA molecules, can be produced through a process called cloning.
19 CloningCloning is an asexual form of reproduction. All the child's genes would come from a body cell of a single individual:
21 Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA TechnologyPolymerase chain reaction (PCR) a technique for copying a piece of DNA a billion-fold.The process creates a chain of many nucleotides, and the chain is a strand of DNA.Used in genetic fingerprinting
22 Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA TechnologyBiotechnologyOrganisms, genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism, are called transgenic organisms.
23 Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyTransgenic AnimalsScientists produce most transgenic animals in laboratories for biological research.Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans
24 Genetically engineered cotton resists insect infestation of the bolls. Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyTransgenic PlantsGenetically engineered cotton resists insect infestation of the bolls.Sweet-potato plants are resistant to a virus that could kill most of the African harvest.Rice plants with increased iron and vitamins could decrease malnutrition.
25 The Human Genome Project Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeThe Human Genome ProjectThe goal of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to determine the sequence of the approximately three billion nucleotides that make up human DNA and to identify all of the approximately 20,000–25,000 human genes.
26 Decoding the sequence of the human genome can be compared to Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeDecoding the sequence of the human genome can be compared toreading a book that was printed in code.
27 A technique aimed at correcting mutated genes that cause human Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeA technique aimed at correcting mutated genesthat cause humandiseases is called genetherapy.Scientists insert a normal gene into a chromosome to replace a dysfunctional gene.Genomics is the study of an organism’s genome.