Presentation on theme: "Section 2 Genetics and Biotechnology DNA Technology"— Presentation transcript:
1Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyGenetic EngineeringTechnology that involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert the DNA of another organism, called exogenous DNA.
2Genetically engineered organisms are used Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyGenetically engineered organisms are usedto study the expression of a particular gene.To investigate cellular processesto study the development of a certain disease.Genetically engineered bollwormTo select traits that might be beneficial to humans
4An organism's genome is the total DNA in the nucleus of each cell. Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyDNA ToolsAn organism's genome is the total DNA in the nucleus of each cell.DNA tools can be used to manipulate DNA and to isolate genes from the rest of the genome.
5Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyRestriction enzymes recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences and cleave the DNA within the sequence.Scientists use restriction enzymes as powerful tools for isolating specific genes or regions of the genome.
6EcoRI specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC. Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyEcoRI specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC.The ends of the DNA fragments, called sticky ends, contain single-stranded DNA that is complementary.
7Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyThe newly generated DNA molecule with DNA from different sources is called recombinant DNA.
8Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyTo make a large quantity of recombinant plasmid DNA, bacterial cells are mixed with recombinant plasmid DNA.Some of the bacterial cells take up the recombinant plasmid DNA through a process called transformation.
9The smaller fragments move farther faster than the larger ones. Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyAn electric current is used to separate DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments in a process called gel electrophoresis.When an electric current is applied, the DNA fragments move toward the positive end of the gel.The smaller fragments move farther faster than the larger ones.The unique pattern created based on the size of the DNA fragment can be compared to known DNA fragments for identification.
10Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyLarge numbers of identical bacteria, each containing the inserted DNA molecules, can be produced through a process called cloning.
13Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyTo understand how DNA is sequenced, scientists mix an unknown DNA fragment, DNA polymerase, and the four nucleotides—A, C, G, T in a tube.
14Each nucleotide is tagged with a different color of fluorescent dye. Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyEach nucleotide is tagged with a different color of fluorescent dye.Every time a modified fluorescent-tagged nucleotide isincorporated into the newly synthesized strand,the reaction stops.
15Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyThe sequencing reaction is complete when the tagged DNA fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis.
16Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyA technique called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to make millions of copies of a specific region of a DNA fragment.
17Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA Technology
18Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyBiotechnologyOrganisms, genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism, are called transgenic organisms.
19Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyTransgenic AnimalsScientists produce most transgenic animals in laboratories for biological research.Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans
20Genetically engineered cotton resists insect infestation of the bolls. Section 2Genetics and BiotechnologyDNA TechnologyTransgenic PlantsGenetically engineered cotton resists insect infestation of the bolls.Sweet-potato plants are resistant to a virus that could kill most of the African harvest.Rice plants with increased iron and vitamins could decrease malnutrition.Gene Splicing
21The Human Genome Project Section 3Genetics and BiotechnologyThe Human GenomeThe Human Genome ProjectThe goal of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to determine the sequence of the approximately three billion nucleotides that make up human DNA and to identify all of the approximately 20,000–25,000 human genes.
22Each of the 46 human chromosomes was cleaved. Section 3Genetics and BiotechnologyThe Human GenomeSequencing the GenomeEach of the 46 human chromosomes was cleaved.These fragments were combined with vectors to create recombinant DNA, cloned to make many copies, and sequenced using automated sequencing machines.Computers analyzed the overlapping regions to generate one continuous sequence.
23Decoding the sequence of the human genome can be compared to Section 3Genetics and BiotechnologyThe Human GenomeDecoding the sequence of the human genome can be compared toreading a book that was printed in code.
24These regions are called noncoding sequences. Section 3Genetics and BiotechnologyThe Human GenomeLess than two percent of all of the nucleotides in the human genome code for all the proteins in the body.The genome is filled with long stretches of repeated sequences that have no direct function.These regions are called noncoding sequences.
25Protein-coding regions of DNA are almost identical among individuals. Section 3Genetics and BiotechnologyThe Human GenomeDNA FingerprintingProtein-coding regions of DNA are almost identical among individuals.The long stretches of noncoding regions of DNA are unique to each individual.DNA fingerprinting involves separating these DNA fragments to observe the distinct banding patterns that are unique to every individual.
26Creating and maintaining databases of biological information Section 3Genetics and BiotechnologyThe Human GenomeBioinformaticsCreating and maintaining databases of biological informationFinding genes in DNA sequences of various organisms and developing methods to predict the structure and function of newly discovered proteins
27A technique aimed at correcting mutated genes Section 3Genetics and BiotechnologyThe Human GenomeA technique aimed at correcting mutated genesthat cause human diseasesis called gene therapy.Scientists insert a normal gene into a chromosome to replace a dysfunctional gene.Genomics is the study of an organism’s genome.