Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology SB2.f – Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine and agriculture."— Presentation transcript:
1 BiotechnologySB2.f – Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine and agriculture.
2 VocabularyRestriction enzyme – enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequencesDNA fingerprint – unique sequence of DNA base pairs that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level Clone – genetically identical copy of a single gene or an entire organism
3 VocabularyGenetic engineering – process of changing an organism’s DNA to give the organism new traitsRecombinant DNA – genetically engineered DNA that contains genes from more than one organism or speciesPlasmid – circular piece of genetic material found in bacteria that can replicate separately from the DNA of the main chromosome
4 VocabularyTransgenic – organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or speciesGene knockout – genetic manipulation in which one or more of an organism’s genes are prevented from being expressedGene sequencing - process of determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes and genomes
5 VocabularyHuman Genome Project – project whose goal is to map, sequence, and identify all of the genes in the human genomeGenetic screening – process of testing DNA to determine the chance a person has, or might pass on, a genetic disorderGene Therapy – procedure to treat a disease in which a defective or missing gene is replaced or a new gene is inserted into a patient’s genome
6 Manipulating DNA Scientists use several techniques to manipulate DNA. Chemicals, computers, and bacteria are used to work with DNA.Scientists use these tools in genetics research and biotechnology.
7 Manipulating DNA Restriction enzymes act as “molecular scissors.” Restriction enzymes cut DNA.Restriction enzymes act as “molecular scissors.”come from various types of bacteriaallow scientists to more easily study and manipulate genescut DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence called a restriction site
8 Manipulating DNA Restriction enzymes cut DNA. Different restriction enzymes cut DNA in different ways.each enzyme has a different restriction sitesome cut straight across and leave “blunt ends”some make staggered cuts and leave “sticky ends”
10 Manipulating DNA Restriction maps show the lengths of DNA fragments. Gel electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments by size.A DNA sample is cut with restriction enzymes.Electrical current pulls DNA fragments through a gel.Smaller fragments move faster and travel farther than larger fragments.Fragments of different sizes appear as bands on the gel.
12 Manipulating DNA Restriction maps show the lengths of DNA fragments. A restriction map shows the lengths of DNA fragments between restriction sites.only indicate size, not DNA sequenceuseful in genetic engineeringused to study mutations
13 DNA Fingerprinting A DNA fingerprint is a type of restriction map. DNA fingerprints are based on parts of an individual’s DNA that can by used for identification.based on noncoding regions of DNAnoncoding regions have repeating DNA sequencesnumber of repeats differs between peoplebanding pattern on a gel is a DNA fingerprint
14 DNA Fingerprinting DNA fingerprinting is used for identification. DNA fingerprinting depends on the probability of a match.Many people have the same number of repeats in a certain region of DNA.The probability that two people share identical numbers of repeats in several locations is very small.
15 DNA Fingerprinting DNA fingerprinting is used for identification. DNA fingerprinting is used in several ways.evidence in criminal casespaternity testsimmigration requests studying biodiversitytracking genetically modified crops
16 Genomics & Bioinformatics Genomics involves the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes.Genomics is the study of genomes.can include the sequencing of the genomecomparisons of genomes within and across species
17 Genomics & Bioinformatics Genomics involves the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes.Gene sequencing is determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes or in genomes.The genomes of several different organisms have been sequenced.The Human Genome Project has sequenced all of the DNA base pairs of human chromosomes.analyzed DNA from a few peoplestill working to identify and map human genes
18 Genetic Screening & Therapy Genetic screening can detect genetic disorders.Genetic screening involves the testing of DNA.determines risk of having or passing on a genetic disorderused to detect specific genes or proteinscan detect some genes related to an increased risk of cancercan detect some genes known to cause genetic disorders
19 Genetic Screening & Therapy Gene therapy is the replacement of faulty genes.Gene therapy replaces defective or missing genes, or adds new genes, to treat a disease.Several experimental techniques are used for gene therapy.genetically engineered viruses used to “infect” a patient’s cellsinsert gene to stimulate immune system to attack cancer cellsinsert “suicide” genes into cancer cells that activate a drug
20 Genetic Screening & Therapy Gene therapy is the replacement of faulty genes.Gene therapy has many technical challenges.inserting gene into correct cellscontrolling gene expressiondetermining effect on other genes