Presentation on theme: "Exploring the source and exploitation of genetic alterations"— Presentation transcript:
1Exploring the source and exploitation of genetic alterations BiotechnologyExploring the source and exploitation of genetic alterations
2Directions:Carefully read through ALL slides of this tutorial (60 slides total). TAKE NOTES on the back of this sheet on the Biotech information. These should be ‘K.I.S.S.’ format … ‘Keep it Short & Simple’ … stick to the key facts presented. Check vocab. definitions against your list from Ch. 13 if needed. Make sure you understand each slide before moving on to the next one!
313.1 Applied Genetics Selective Breeding Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Applied GeneticsSelective BreedingThe process by which desired traits of certain plants and animals are selected and passed on to their future generations is called selective breeding.Saint BernardRescue dogHuskySled dogGerman shepherdService dog
4Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Applied GeneticsHybridizationHybrid organisms can be bred to be more disease-resistant, to produce more offspring, or to grow faster.A disadvantage of hybridization is that it is time consuming and expensive.
5Pure breeds are maintained by inbreeding. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Applied GeneticsInbreedingThe process in which two closely related organisms are bred to have the desired traits and to eliminate the undesired ones in future generationsPure breeds are maintained by inbreeding.A disadvantage of inbreeding is that harmful recessive traits also can be passed on to future generations.
6Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.1 Applied GeneticsTest CrossA test cross involves breeding an organism that has the unknown genotype with one that is homozygous recessive for the desired trait.
7Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyGenetic EngineeringTechnology that involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert the DNA of another organism, called exogenous DNA.
8Genetically engineered organisms are used Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyGenetically engineered organisms are usedto study the expression of a particular gene.to investigate cellular processes.to study the development of a certain disease.Genetically engineered bollwormto select traits that might be beneficial to humans.
9An organism’s genome is the total DNA in the nucleus of each cell. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyDNA ToolsAn organism’s genome is the total DNA in the nucleus of each cell.DNA tools can be used to manipulate DNA and to isolate genes from the rest of the genome.
10Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyRestriction enzymes recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences and cleave the DNA within the sequence.Scientists use restriction enzymes as powerful tools for isolating specific genes or regions of the genome.
11EcoRI specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyEcoRI specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC.The ends of the DNA fragments, called sticky ends, contain single-stranded DNA that is complementary.
13The smaller fragments move farther faster than the larger ones. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyAn electric current is used to separate DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments in a process called gel electrophoresis.When an electric current is applied, the DNA fragments move toward the positive end of the gel.The smaller fragments move farther faster than the larger ones.
14Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyGel electrophoresisThe unique pattern created based on the size of the DNA fragment can be compared to known DNA fragments for identification.
15Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyThe newly generated DNA molecule with DNA from different sources is called recombinant DNA.
16Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyTo make a large quantity of recombinant plasmid DNA, bacterial cells are mixed with recombinant plasmid DNA.Some of the bacterial cells take up the recombinant plasmid DNA through a process called transformation.
17Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyLarge numbers of identical bacteria, each containing the inserted DNA molecules, can be produced through a process called cloning.
18Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyTo understand how DNA is sequenced, scientists mix an unknown DNA fragment, DNA polymerase, and the four nucleotides—A, C, G, T in a tube.
19Each nucleotide is tagged with a different color of fluorescent dye. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyEach nucleotide is tagged with a different color of fluorescent dye.Every time a modified fluorescent-tagged nucleotide isincorporated into the newly synthesized strand,the reaction stops.
20Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyThe sequencing reaction is complete when the tagged DNA fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis.
21Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyA technique called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to make millions of copies of a specific region of a DNA fragment.PCR Analysis
22Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA Technology
24Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyBiotechnologyOrganisms, genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism, are called transgenic organisms.
25Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyTransgenic AnimalsScientists produce most transgenic animals in laboratories for biological research.Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans
26Genetically engineered cotton resists insect infestation of the bolls. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.2 DNA TechnologyTransgenic PlantsGenetically engineered cotton resists insect infestation of the bolls.Sweet-potato plants are resistant to a virus that could kill most of the African harvest.Rice plants with increased iron and vitamins could decrease malnutrition.Gene Splicing
27The Human Genome Project Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeThe Human Genome ProjectThe goal of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to determine the sequence of the approximately three billion nucleotides that make up human DNA and to identify all of the approximately 20,000–25,000 human genes.
28Each of the 46 human chromosomes was cleaved. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeSequencing the GenomeEach of the 46 human chromosomes was cleaved.These fragments were combined with vectors to create recombinant DNA, cloned to make many copies, and sequenced using automated sequencing machines.Computers analyzed the overlapping regions to generate one continuous sequence.
29Decoding the sequence of the human genome can be compared to Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeDecoding the sequence of the human genome can be compared toreading a book that was printed in code.
30These regions are called noncoding sequences. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeLess than two percent of all of the nucleotides in the human genome code for all the proteins in the body.The genome is filled with long stretches of repeated sequences that have no direct function.These regions are called noncoding sequences.
31Protein-coding regions of DNA are almost identical among individuals. Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeDNA FingerprintingProtein-coding regions of DNA are almost identical among individuals.The long stretches of noncoding regions of DNA are unique to each individual.DNA fingerprinting involves separating these DNA fragments to observe the distinct banding patterns that are unique to every individual.
32Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeIdentifying GenesResearchers have identified genes by scanning the sequence for Open Reading Frames (ORFs).ORFs contain at least 100 codons that begin with a start codon and end with a stop codon.
33Creating and maintaining databases of biological information Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeBioinformaticsCreating and maintaining databases of biological informationFinding genes in DNA sequences of various organisms and developing methods to predict the structure and function of newly discovered proteins
34Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeDNA MicroarraysTiny microscope slides or silicon chips that are spotted with DNA fragmentsHelp researchers determine whether the expression of certain genes is caused by genetic factors or environmental factors.Visualizing Microarray Analysis
35Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeVariations in the DNA sequence that occur when a single nucleotide in the genome is altered are called single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs.
36Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeRegions of linked variations in the human genome are known as haplotypes.Assembling the HapMap involves identifying groups of SNPs in a specific region of DNA.
37Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeThe HapMap will enable geneticists to take advantage of how SNPs and other genetic variations are organized on chromosomes.
38Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeThe study of how genetic inheritance affects the body’s response to drugs is called pharmacogenomics.The benefits of pharmacogenomics include more accurate dosing of drugs that are safer and more specific.
39A technique aimed at correcting mutated genes Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeA technique aimed at correcting mutated genesthat cause human diseasesis called gene therapy.Scientists insert a normal gene into a chromosome to replace a dysfunctional gene.Genomics is the study of an organism’s genome.
40Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeGenes are the primary information storage units, whereas proteins are the machines of a cell.
41Chapter 13Genetics and Biotechnology13.3 The Human GenomeThe large-scale study and cataloging of the structure and function of proteins in the human body is called proteomics.
42Can we modify the genetic code of living things? (& should we?)
43Means of genetic manipulation Selective breedingOf dissimilar individuals, called hybridizationOf similar individuals, called inbreedingIncreasing genetic variationMutation caused by mutagen (radiation or chemicals)Use of drugs to produce polyploidsGenetic engineering!!! (direct manipulation of an organism’s genes)
44Genetic Engineering Also known as… Genetic modification or manipulationRecombinant DNA technologyGene splicing
45Genetic Engineering Uses two main techniques or processes: Gene cloning (makes copies)Transformation (take up new DNA)
46Tools of genetic engineering Restriction enzymes cut DNA at a specific place in the codeGene splicing recombines DNA from different sourcesVectors & plasmids harvest DNA for cloning
47As easy as 1, 2, 3… Rabbit DNA + Crab DNA = Crabbit !! How’s it done?As easy as 1, 2, 3… Rabbit DNA + Crab DNA = Crabbit !!
48How to genetically engineer DNA Begin with the source DNA you wantCut out a DNA fragment from the source DNA with restriction enzymeCut out a sequence from the plasmid with the same restriction enzymeThe source DNA is inserted into plasmid
49How to genetically engineer DNA Bacteria have to take up the foreign DNA. This is called transformation.Bacteria becomes a cloning vector, making copies of recombinant DNA
50( - 1) Try your hand at gene therapy – click here) ApplicationsGenetic screening identifies “broken” DNAGene therapy uses recombinant DNA technology to replace an absent or faulty gene with a normal, working gene( - 1) Try your hand at gene therapy – click here)
51ApplicationsGene splicing uses recombinant DNA technology to produce transgenic organisms (organisms with other organisms’ genes) that help make better medicines, treatments, and supplements (Example: Transgenic Corn from our ‘Virtual Corn Lab’ 1st Qtr.!)
52Other tools of genetic engineering Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) copies DNAGel electrophoresis makes a picture of DNA called a DNA fingerprint
53How to make a DNA fingerprint Small amounts of DNA are extracted from blood, saliva, hair, urine, etc ( - 2) Click here for Virtual DNA extraction Lab)If the amount of DNA is too small, the polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, can be used to increase the quantity of DNA ( - 3) Click here for Virtual PCR lab)
54How to make a DNA fingerprint DNA is cut into fragments of specific sizes by restriction enzymesDNA is put in a slab of gel and an electrical current moves DNA to the + electrode ( - 4) Click here for Virtual Gel Electrophoresis lab)Bigger pieces move more slowly & travel shorter distances
55How to make a DNA fingerprint The banding pattern in the gel is analyzed
56ApplicationsDNA fingerprinting identifies differences between individuals’ genetic makeup to establish identity or relationships
57Other tools of genetic engineering Stem cells have the ability to develop into different cell typesWhat is a stem cell?( - 5) Click here for helpful animation)Types of stem cells( - 6) Click here for helpful animation)Embryonic stem cells( - 7) Click here for helpful animation)Somatic cell nuclear transfer( - 8) Click here for Virtual Cloning Lab)
58Watch Nova scienceNow: Stem Cells (click here) ApplicationsCloning DNA enables rapid, large-scale production of useful genes, cells, tissuesWatch Nova scienceNow: Stem Cells (click here)
59How would you apply this technique to make a vaccine? Problem…How would you apply this technique to make a vaccine?Hint:How do vaccines work?What does your immune system use to target foreign cells?Can your immune system be “tricked” into thinking it is infected with a virus?
60Is there a need for a cure? Should “broken” genes be fixed?