2 Defining Normal and Deviant Behavior What determines whether a person’s actions are seen as eccentric, creative, or deviant?
3 In your opinion what makes a given action such as a 25 year old dating a 14 year old wrong to some people?
4 Why will two men walking hand-in-hand cause raised eyebrows in one place but not in another?
5 Norms and values make up the moral code Moral code The symbolic system in terms of which behavior takes on the quality of being “good” or “bad,” “right” or “wrong.”Moral codes differ widely from one society to another.
6 Deviant behaviorBehavior that fails to conform to the rules or norms of the group in question
8 What is Deviant Behavior? From the sociological perspective, deviance is seen as relative to the values of any given culture. However, there are certain acts that are almost universally accepted as being deviant.GenocideParent-child incest
9 Functions of DeviancePrompts the group to organize in order to limit future deviant acts.Helps clarify for the group what it really does believe in.Teaches normal behavior by providing examples of rule violation
10 Dysfunctions of Deviance It is a threat to the social order because it makes social life unpredictable.It causes confusion about the norms and values of that society.
12 Theories of Crime and Deviance Biological Theories of DeviancePsychological Theories of DevianceSociological Theories of Deviance
13 Biological Theories of Deviance Cesare Lombroso (1835–1901)People are born criminalsCriminals are evolutionary throwbacks whose behavior is more apelike than humanDriven by their instincts to engage in deviant behaviorBelieved that certain criminal types could be identified by their head size, facial characteristics and even hair color.
14 Psychological Theories of Deviance Downplay biological factors and emphasize instead the role of parents and early childhood experiences, or behavioral conditioning, in producing deviant behavior.Assume that the seeds of deviance are planted in childhood and that adult behavior is a manifestation of early experiences rather than an expression of ongoing social or cultural factors.
15 Behavioral TheoriesPeople adjust and modify their behaviors in response to the rewards and punishments their actions elicit.Something that leads to a favorable outcome, we are likely to repeat that action.
16 Strain Theory Robert K. Merton (1938, 1969) believed that American society pushes individuals toward deviance by overemphasizing the importance of monetary success while failing to emphasize the importance of using legitimate means to achieve that success.
21 Consensus approachAssumes that laws are merely a formal version of the norms and values of the people.Functionalist model for explaining a society’s legal system.
22 Conflict approachAssumes that the elite use their power to enact and enforce laws that support their own economic interests and go against the interests of the lower classes
23 Crime in the United States A Crime is behavior that violates a society’s legal code.Violent crimeAn unlawful event such as homicide, rape, and assault that may result in injury to a person.Aggravated assaultRapeMurderRobbery
24 Property crimeAn unlawful act that is committed with the intent of gaining property but that does not involve the use or threat of force against an individual.LarcenyBurglaryMotor vehicle theft are examples of property crimes
25 Violent CrimeIn addition to homicide and rape, other violent crimes such as aggravated assault and robbery have an effect on American households.
26 White-Collar CrimeRefers to the acts of individuals who, while occupying positions of social responsibility or high prestige, break the law in the course of their work for the purpose of illegal personal or organizational gain.
27 Acts that violate those laws meant to enforce the moral code. Victimless CrimeActs that violate those laws meant to enforce the moral code.Examples:The use of narcoticsIllegal gamblingPublic drunkennessThe sale of sexual services
28 Would you consider Prostitution a victimless crime?
29 QuestionFrom the following list, what do you feel should be the most important function of prison?Punish people for crimes they committed.Rehabilitate criminals.Protect society by locking away criminals.Warn to would-be lawbreakers.Make people pay back society for crimes they committed.Don't know
30 Goals of Imprisonment Prisons exist to accomplish at least four goals: separate criminals from societypunish criminal behaviordeter criminal behaviorrehabilitate criminals
31 Women Prisoners in State and Federal Institutions, 1925–2004