Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Deviance and Crime Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 7 Deviance and Crime Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Deviance Any action, belief, or human characteristic that members of a society or a social group consider a violation of group norms for which the violator is likely to be censured or punished Sociologically, no act, belief, or characteristic is inherently deviant because deviance is socially defined. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Shifting Definitions of Deviance What is thought to be deviant will vary from one time period to another. Some behaviors were once not seen as deviant but now are (for example, obesity) while other behaviors were once seen as deviant but now are not (for example, premarital sex). What is thought to be deviant will also vary geographically. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Global Flows of Deviance Deviance may flow from one society to another. There are global trends toward normalizing that which was defined at one time and place as deviant. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Deviance and Consumption The use of goods and services that are illegal or considered deviant This form of consumption involves committing deviant or illegal acts in order to be able to afford to consume. Examples include a drug addict stealing to be able to buy drugs and the “mall girls” of Poland. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Definitions of Dangerous Consumption As with all sorts of deviance, definitions of what is deviant consumer behavior are sometimes in dispute. Napster users did not consider the downloading of music from the Internet to be illegal or deviant. Those who consume the “wrong” drugs (e.g., marijuana) are more likely to be seen as deviant than those who consume the “right” drugs (e.g., alcohol). Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Dangerous Consumers Before the recession of 2008, those who did not consume enough were considered deviant. Consumerism was considered to be patriotic. Those who consume illegal goods are considered to be dangerous. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Overconsumption Recent changes in the economy demonstrate the relative nature of deviance. After the recession of 2008, those who consumed too much were considered deviant. While savings is considered deviant during economic booms, not saving is considered deviant during economic downturns. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Theories of Deviance Explanatory Theories Concerned with trying to explain why deviance occurs Assume that deviance is determined by a wide variety of factors Constructionist Theories Concerned with the process by which people are classified as deviant Focus on who is in power and how they create and apply deviant labels Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Structural/Functional Theories Strain is cause by a discrepancy between the approved goals of society and the approved means to achieve them. Adaptations to Strain: Conformity Innovation Ritualism Retreating Rebellion Social Control Theory focuses on why people conform to norms (i.e., do not commit deviant acts). Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Conflict/Critical Theories Deviance and the Poor Deviance is something created by the capitalist system. The definition of deviance serves the interest of the capitalists while adversely affecting the poor. Deviance and the Elite Great efforts are made by the capitalists to legitimize elite acts of deviance. The higher-ups in society have greater ability to commit deviant acts. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Inter/actionist Theories In the realm of deviance a number of symbols (labels) exist. Interaction occurs between a person or a group doing the labeling and a person or group to whom the label is applied. Those who do the labeling are social control agents. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Inter/actionist Theories Labeling Theory Defines a deviant as someone to whom a deviant label has been successfully applied Stigma Erving Goffman (1963) defined a stigma as a characteristic others define and label as deviant. Moral Entrepreneurs Lead a campaign to have an act defined as deviant and made illegal Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Crime A violation of the criminal law. Criminology is the study of all aspects of crime. Many criminologists are sociologists. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Types of Crime Violent Crimes Involve the threat or actual use of force Property Crimes Offenses that involve the taking or destroying of property Felonies Punishable by more than one year in prison Misdemeanors Punishable by a fine or imprisonment of less than a year Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Types of Crime White collar crimes are committed by a person in the course of their occupation. Corporate crime involves legal organizations that break the law (e.g., antitrust violations and insider trading). Organized crime is associated with crime syndicates. Political crime is an offense against the state or by the state, domestically or internationally. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Types of Crimes Hate crimes are those whose victims are chosen because of their race, religion, age, sexual orientation, national origin, or disability status. Cybercrime targets computers or uses computers to commit traditional crimes (e.g., theft from a bank). Consumer crimes are crimes related to consumption (e.g., shoplifting). Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Crime Statistics Crime statistics are difficult to collect and often quite inaccurate. Sources of crime data: The FBI’s Uniform Crime Report (UCR) The Department of Justice’s National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Demographics and Crime Age In general, most people are likely to commit crime in their late adolescence. Gender The vast majority of crimes are committed by men. Race African Americans account for 13% of the U.S. population but account for over one third of all violent crimes. Social Class Those in the upper classes are more likely to commit crime and avoid detection. Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
Globalization and Crime Criminalization of Global Activities In the era of globalization, the nation-states of Western Europe and the United States have played a central role in criminalizing certain activities. Global Crime Control Has been led by the growth in international policing and the role of police in international relations Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.