Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4, Crime and Violence The Global Context: International Crime and Violence Sources of Crime Statistics Sociological Theories of Crime and Violence."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 4, Crime and Violence The Global Context: International Crime and Violence Sources of Crime Statistics Sociological Theories of Crime and Violence
Chapter 4, Crime and Violence Types of Crime Demographic Patterns of Crime Costs of Crime and Violence Strategies For Action: Responding To Crime And Violence
Crime Throughout the World Similarities: There is no country without crime. Adult males comprise the largest category of crime suspects. Theft is most common crime worldwide.
Crime Throughout the World Differences: Industrialized countries have higher rates of crime. Arabs have lowest crime rates in the world. U.S. homicide rate is 4 times higher than Western Europe’s, 6 times higher than Great Britain's, and 7 times higher than Japan’s.
Examples of Transnational Crimes Russian ruble, precious metals, arms are smuggled out of the country. Chinese Triads operate rings of prostitution, drugs, and other organized crime. Children are trafficked through Canada and Mexico for child pornography.
Major Types of Crime Statistics Official statistics Victimization surveys Self-report offender surveys
Problems With Official Statistics Many crimes are not reported. Some reported crimes are not recorded by police. Some rates may be exaggerated.
Structural-Functionalist Theories Strain theory Control theory Subcultural theories
Strain Theory People adapt to inconsistency between means and goals in society. Methods of adaptation: conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism and rebellion.
Control Theory Social bonds constrain some individuals from violating social norms: Attachment to significant others. Commitment to conventional goals. Involvement in conventional activities. Belief in the moral standards of society.
Subcultural Theories Certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes conducive to violence. Members of these subcultures adopt the crime- promoting attitudes of the group.
Conflict Perspective Social inequality leads to crimes as means of economic survival. Those in power define what is criminal. Law enforcement penalizes those without power and benefits those with power.
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Labeling Theory Being labeled deviant leads to further deviant behavior: – The labeled person is denied opportunities to engage in nondeviant behavior. – The labeled person adopts a deviant self- concept and acts accordingly.
Types Of Crime Index crimes Vice crime Organized crime White-collar crime Computer crime Juvenile delinquency
Index Crimes Homicide Aggravated assault Rape Robbery Burglary Arson Motor vehicle theft Larceny
White Collar Crime Occupational - individuals commit crimes in the course of their employment. Corporate - corporations violate law to maximize profit.
Computer Crime One of the fastest growing crimes in U.S. Hacking - unauthorized computer intrusion. Identity theft - stealing of someone else’s identification to obtain credit.
Demographics and Crime Men are more likely to commit violent crimes than women. Highest arrest rates involve individuals under age 25. If current trends continue, by 2020, 2 in 3 black males ages 18 to 34 will be in prison.