Presentation on theme: "Crime and Criminal Justice"— Presentation transcript:
1 Crime and Criminal Justice Chapter 8Crime and Criminal Justice
2 Chapter Outline Crime and Deviance Types of Crime Organized Crime and Corporate CrimeRace, Class, Gender and CrimeThe Criminal Justice System: Police, courts and the LawTerrorism As International Crime: A Global Perspective
3 Crime and DevianceCrime is a type of deviant behavior, but not all deviant behavior would be called crime.Deviance becomes crime when it is designated by the institutions of society as violating such a law or laws.Criminology is the study of crime from a scientific perspective.
4 Sociological Theories of Crime FunctionalistCrime is learned through social interaction.Symbolic InteractionSocieties need a certain level of crime to clarify norms.Conflict TheoryThe lower the social class, the more the individual is forced into criminality.
5 Sociological Theories of Crime FunctionalistCrime results from social structural strains within society.Symbolic InteractionLabeling criminals tends to reinforce rather than deter crime.Conflict TheoryInequalities in society tends to produce criminal activity.
6 Sociological Theories of Crime FunctionalistCrime may be functional to society, thus difficult to eradicate.Symbolic InteractionInstitutions with the power to label produce rather than lessen crime.Conflict TheoryReducing social inequalities will reduce crime.
8 Classifications of Crimes Personal crimes - murder, aggravated assault, rape, robberyProperty crimes - burglary, larceny, auto theft, arson
9 Polling QuestionHave you ever stolen little things worth between $2 and $50?A.) YesB.) No
10 Polling Question Have you ever stolen things worth more than $50? A.) YesB.) No
11 Classifications of Crimes Victimless crimes - gambling, illegal drug use, prostitution Hate crimes - assaults and other malicious acts motivated by bias
12 White-collar or Elite Crime Examples: embezzlement, insider trading, tax evasionIn terms of dollars, white-collar crime is much more consequential for society than street crimes.
13 Organized CrimeCrime committed by organized groups, typically involving the provision of illegal goods and services to others.Organized crime syndicates include any group that exercises control over large illegal enterprises, such as the drug trade, illegal gambling, prostitution or weapons smuggling.These industries are organized in the same kind of hierarchy as legitimate businesses.
14 Corporate Crime and Deviance Occurs in the context of a formal organization or bureaucracy and is sanctioned by the norms and operating principles of the organization.Can occur within any of organization: corporate, educational, governmental, or religious.Example: Sexual assault of youths by Catholic priests, and the attempted cover-ups by assigning offending priests to parishes in different towns or states.
15 Race, Class, Gender and Crime Certain groups are more likely than others to commit crime given that crime is linked to patterns of inequality in society.Sociologist Ramiro Martinez Jr. explored the connection between rates of violence in Latino communities and the degree of inequality in 111 U.S. cities.His research shows a clear link between likelihood of lethal violence and socioeconomic conditions for Latinos in these different cities.
16 Race and CrimeMinorities constitute 25% of the population of the United States but are more than 33% of the people arrested for property crimes and almost 50% of the people arrested for violent crimes.Sociological research has shown that police discretion is strongly influenced by class and race judgments.
20 Factor’s in Increase in Crime By Women Changes brought about by the women’s movement made women more likely to be employed in jobs that present opportunities for crimes such as property theft, embezzlement, and fraud.The images women have of themselves are changing, making new behaviors possible.Women on average remain in disadvantaged low-wage positions in the labor market.
21 The Policing of Minorities Minority communities are policed more heavily than White neighborhoods.Policing in minority communities has a different effect than in White, middle-class communities.Numerous studies have also documented the severe treatment that Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and African Americans receive from the police.
22 Racial ProfilingThe use of race alone as the criterion for deciding whether to stop and detain someone, such as the driver of an automobile, on suspicion of committing a crime.While the crime rate for Blacks and Hispanics is higher than that of Whites, the majority of Blacks or Hispanics do not commit any crimes.On a given day, there is roughly a 90% chance that an African American in a car has not committed a crime.
23 Race and SentencingExtensive research finds that once on trial, minority defendants are found guilty more often than White defendants.At sentencing, Blacks and Latinos are likely to get longer sentences than Whites for the same crimes.A study of Hispanic and White judges found that White judges sentence White defendants less severely than Hispanic defendants.
24 Race and the Death Penalty Of the over 3500 prisoners currently on Death Row, 44% are Black.Research shows that when Whites and minorities commit the same crime against a White victim, minorities are more likely to receive a more severe sentence.Someone who kills a White person is also three times more likely to get the death penalty than someone who kills an African American, regardless of the race of the perpetrator.
25 PrisonsMore than half of the federal and state male prisoners in the United States are racial minorities.Blacks have the highest rates of imprisonment, followed by Hispanics, then Native Americans and Asians.The United States and Russia have the highest rates of incarceration in the world.
28 Polling QuestionHave you ever been arrested?A.) YesB.) No
29 Prisons and Deterrence Prisons rarely seem to deter or rehabilitate offenders.Only 20% who are imprisoned for drug offenses ever receive drug treatment.The prison experience is poorly suited to training prisoners in marketable skills or allowing them to repay their debt to society.
30 TerrorismTerrorism is a crime that violates both international and domestic laws.Terrorists crosses national borders and its understanding requires a global perspective.Terrorism, whether domestic or international, is best understood not only as individual insanity, but also as a politically, economically, and socially oriented form of violence.
32 1. The study of crime from a scientific perspective is called: a. Criminal justiceb. Criminologyc. Criminal behaviorismd. Criminal studies
33 Answer: bThe study of crime from a scientific perspective is called criminology.
34 2. "The lower the social class, the more the individual is forced into criminality." This statement most closely reflects the:a. evolutionary perspectiveb. conflict perspectivec. functionalist perspectived. symbolic interactionist perspective
35 Answer: b"The lower the social class, the more the individual is forced into criminality." This statement most closely reflects the conflict perspective.
36 3. Which of the following is not considered an example of property crimes? a. arsonb. larcenyc. burglaryd. gambling
37 Answer: dGambling is not considered an example of property crimes.
38 4. __________________ refers to criminal activities by persons of high social status who commit their crimes in the context of their occupation.a. Property crimesb. Personal crimesc. Elite crimed. Hate crimes
39 Answer: cElite crime refers to criminal activities by persons of high social status who commit their crimes in the context.