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THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control.

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Presentation on theme: "THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control

2 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Deviance- Behavior that violates significant social norms. Stigma- Mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society. 2

3 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 3 Social Functions of Deviance  Clarifying Norms – defines the boundaries of acceptable behavior.  Unifying the Group – serves to draw the line between conforming members of society and “outsiders” – the nonconforming members.  – acts that allow individuals to relieve tension without disrupting the basic fabric of society.  Diffusing Tension – acts that allow individuals to relieve tension without disrupting the basic fabric of society. Section 1: Deviance

4 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Corporal Punishment  To Spank or not to Spank? To Spank or not to Spank? To Spank or not to Spank?  Corporal Punishment in School Corporal Punishment in School Corporal Punishment in School  Countries that ban Corporal Punishment Countries that ban Corporal Punishment Countries that ban Corporal Punishment  Texas on Corporal Punishment Texas on Corporal Punishment Texas on Corporal Punishment  Texas Texas 4

5 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 5 Social Functions of Deviance  Promoting Social Change – can help prompt social change by identifying problem areas.  Providing Jobs – provides legitimate jobs for a wide range of people. (criminologists).  What is considered deviant? What is considered deviant? What is considered deviant? Section 1: Deviance

6 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 6  Functionalists Functionalists Deviance is the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structures of society. Sociologist: Emile Durkheim

7 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 7 Strain Theory- Sometimes people find that when they attempt to attain culturally approved goals, their paths are blocked. Not everyone has legitimate ways of achieving success. They experience strain or frustration that can lead to deviance.

8 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 8 He said that they also experience Anomie- feelings of being disconnected from society. A state of confusion. Sociologist: Robert Merton

9 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 9 Merton’s Structural Strain Theory of Deviance- Modes of Adaptation Individuals are under considerable strain, to which they adapt in any one of five possible ways: 1.Conformity- Conformists follow rules and believe doing so will pay off financially.

10 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 2.Innovatation- do not follow society’s rules (i.e., laws) in their pursuit of attaining wealth. Innovators may not have the means to attain financial wealth (e.g., not enough money to further advance education), and/or simply not believe in the law. Hence, innovators turn to crime.

11 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 11 3.Ritualism- are those individuals who do not believe they can attain the culturally defined goal of accumulating financial wealth, but who continue to do so through society’s acceptable cultural pathways simply because they are supposed to (e.g., going to work and school, despite feeling such actions will never pay off).

12 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 12 4.Retreatism- when people reject the goal of financial wealth, as well as the means society deems acceptable to get rich. Hence people in this group escape, or retreat from society, often times through substance use.

13 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 13 5.Rebellion- are the last group who redefine society’s goals and create new institutional means of pursuing their unique goals. Rebels work outside of the established system.

14 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 14 Manifest Functions- are those that are intended and recognized. These are functions which people assume and expect the institutions to fulfil. For example- schools are expected to educate the children in the knowledge and skills that they need. The manifest functions are obvious, admitted and generally applauded.

15 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 15 Latent Functions- are unrecognized and unintended functions. These are the unforeseen consequences of institutions. For example: schools not only educate young they also provide mass entertainment.

16 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 16 Conflict Theorists – Competition and social inequality lead to deviance. People who don’t have power perform deviant acts to achieve economic rewards. People with power commit deviant acts to maintain their power. Sociologist: Richard Quinney

17 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON  Interactionists – 3 major explanations for deviance. 1.Control Theory- natural occurrence. People with weak ties to the community. 2. Cultural Transmission Theory- Deviance is a learned behavior. a. Differential Association- individuals learn deviance in proportion to the number of deviant acts they are exposed to. 3. Labeling Theory- All people commit deviant acts but not all people are labeled as deviant since some acts go undetected. Once a person is labeled as deviant the label becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy and often becomes the persons master status. 17

18 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Labeling Theorists believe in 2 types of deviance:  Primary Deviance- occasional breaking of norms that is not part of a person’s lifestyle. Society doesn’t consider them to be deviant.  Secondary Deviance- individual being labeled as deviant and accepting the rule as true. The persons identity are organized around breaking society’s norms.  Degradation Ceremony- process of labeling someone deviant. 18

19 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 19 Principal Types of Crime in the U.S.  Violent Crime – crimes that involve force or violence. Includes murder, robbery, terrorism- most victims are Black.  Illegal Street Racing Illegal Street Racing Illegal Street Racing  Crime Against Property – Crimes that involve either stealing someone else’s property or intentionally causing damage to it. Includes burglary, larceny, vehicle theft; more common than violent crimes.  – includes prostitution, gambling, illegal drug use. Offender is the only victim.  Victimless Crime – includes prostitution, gambling, illegal drug use. Offender is the only victim.

20 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 20 Principal Types of Crime in the U.S.  – committed by high-status individuals in the course of their professions; includes fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement.  White Collar Crime – committed by high-status individuals in the course of their professions; includes fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement.  Identity Theft Identity Theft Identity Theft  – the pursuit of crime as a big business. Crimes committed by organized crime syndicates.  Organized Crime – the pursuit of crime as a big business. Crimes committed by organized crime syndicates. Loan sharking, hijacking, drug trafficking Section 2: Crime

21 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 21 Is public shaming effective ?

22 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 10 Famous Unsolved Crimes Qw&feature=player_detailpage Qw&feature=player_detailpage 22

23 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 23 American Criminal-Justice System-Composed of:  – have most immediate control over who is arrested for a criminal act.  Police – have most immediate control over who is arrested for a criminal act. Police  s – determine the guilt or innocence of an accused person by means of a trial and assigns some form of punishment if there is a guilty finding.  Courts – determine the guilt or innocence of an accused person by means of a trial and assigns some form of punishment if there is a guilty finding.  – sanctions used to punish those found guilty of crimes.  Corrections – sanctions used to punish those found guilty of crimes. Corrections  – used to punish offenders younger than age 18.  Juvenile-Justice System – used to punish offenders younger than age 18. Section 2: Crime

24 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON  Racial Profiling- assuming that nonwhite Americans are more likely to commit crimes than white Americans.  Deterrence- discouraging criminal acts by threatening punishment.  Retribution- punishment intended to make criminals pay compensation for their acts.  Rehabilitation- process of changing or reforming a criminal through socialization.  Recidivism- a repeat or return to criminal behavior. 24

25 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Death Penalty    25

26 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Prison Gangs National Geographic National Geographic 26

27 THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Crimes of the Century  Assassinations  Cold-Blooded Murder 27


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