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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 9 Crime and Criminal Justice This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Crime as a Social Problem Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Data on crime collected annually by the FBI Index crimes Murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, motor vehicle theft, arson and larceny Crime Clock
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Figure 9.1: Crime Clock, 2003 Source: FBI, 2004.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Types of Crimes: Violent Violent Crime Actions involving force or the threat of force against others (e.g., murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) Murder Unlawful, intentional killing of one person by another Involves malice aforethought Manslaughter is the unintentional killing of another Statistics on murder are most accurate In 2003, 14,408 murders reported to police Men make up vast majority of victims 90% of victims are 18 years or older Most murders are intra-racial
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Figure 9.2: Murder by Relationship of Victim and Offender, 2003 Source: FBI, 2004.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Problems in Understanding and Reporting of Rape Rape is an act of violence in which sex is used as a weapon Several types of rapes exist Rape is often not reported Its traumatic nature Fear the attacker will try to get even Fear of treatment by the police and legal system
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Types of Crimes: Property Property Crime Taking property from another without force, threat of force, or the destruction of property Most frequently reported in victimization surveys is burglary African Americans and Latinos/as have a higher than average risk of being burglarized than whites Most frequently reported index crime in larceny- theft Statistics on auto theft are relatively accurate Insurance companies require reporting auto theft
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Map 9.1: Violent and Property Crime by Region, 2003 (per 100,000 inhabitants). Source: FBI, 2004.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Types of Crimes, Cont’d. Occupational (White-Collar) Crime Illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or normal business activity Examples: employee theft, embezzlement, soliciting bribes Corporate Crime Illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation with its support. Examples: unlawful labor practices, price fixing, deceptive advertising Direct losses from corporate crime are immense in comparison to losses from street property crime
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Types of Crimes, Cont’d. Organized Crime A business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit Examples: Drug trafficking, prostitution, gambling, loan-sharking, money laundering, and large-scale theft such as truck hijackings Syndicated crime networks thrive because there is great demand for illegal goods and services
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Juvenile Delinquency and Status Offenses Juvenile delinquency involves a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by a young person under a specific age Status offenses are not criminal acts per se, but are illegal because of the offender’s age Examples: Cutting school, buying and consuming alcoholic beverages, running away from home Most juvenile cases are heard in juvenile court or by special judges.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Who Gets Arrested for Crime? Men are more likely to be arrested than women Teenagers and young adults are most likely to be arrested for serious crimes such as homicide, rape, and robbery People from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to be arrested for violent and property crimes People from upper classes generally commit white- collar or elite crimes Low-income African Americans are overrepresented in arrest data
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Explanations of Crime Biological Cesare Lombroso 19 th century Italian Criminals are biological throwbacks William Sheldon Mesomorphs Endomorphs Ectomorphs Psychological Intelligence (IQ) and crime People with lower IQs commit more crime than people with higher IQs Frustration-aggression hypothesis Frustrated people take out aggression onto others
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Explanations of Crime, Cont’d. Functionalist Strain theory (Robert Merton0 People are socialized to desire cultural goals but lack accepted means to achieve the goals Response to cultural pressures Conformity, Innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion Control theory Delinquency and crime are more likely when a person’s ties to society are broken Social bonding involves Attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Explanations of Crime, Cont’d. Conflict Authority and power relations contribute to some people becoming criminals Crime as a status (not a behavior) is acquired Radical-Conflict approach Crimes people commit are based on their class position Feminist approaches Gender discrimination, patriarchy, and a combination of capitalism and patriarchy explain why women commit crimes
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Explanations of Crime, Cont’d. Symbolic Interactionist Criminal behavior is learned through interaction with others Differential association Associating with people who are more likely to deviate from social norms Labeling theory Criminals are persons who have been successfully labeled as such by others Initial act is called primary deviance When a person accepts the label and continues the behavior it is called secondary deviance
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Components of Criminal Justice System Police Most visible link because they initially arrest and jail people Courts Responsible for determining guilt or innocence Punishment and prisons Serve four functions: retribution, social protection, rehabilitation, and deterrence
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Controversy and the Death Penalty Removal from the group is considered the ultimate punishment Opponents argue Discriminates against people of color Innocent individuals may be executed Supporters argue Justifiable response to serious crimes
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Crime and Criminal Justice This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are.
Chapter 6 Deviance and Crime. Deviance –Violates significant social norms –Relative to societal context –Differs in degree of seriousness Behavioral Belief.
Chapter 6 Crime and Violence. Crime Crime – violation of the criminal laws enacted by federal, state, or local governments –Misdemeanor – a less serious.
Chapter 8 - Deviance Deviance - violation of social norms **Society decides 2 components 1. Must be caught in deviant act 2. Stigma - mark that sets a.
THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS SOCIOLOGY HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON 1 CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control Section 1: Deviance Section 2: Crime.
8.2 Crime. Introduction Effects everybody in the United States Some are victims, some are criminals, some are both Majority that are effected are.
Chapter 7 Deviance and Crime What Is Deviance? Functionalist Perspectives on Deviance Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives on Deviance Conflict Perspectives.
Any act that is labeled such by those in authority, prohibited by law. And punishable by the government.
Chapter 6 Deviance. Social Control Attempts by society to regulate people’s thought and behavior. Conformity – going along with peers Obedience – compliance.
Chapter 7 Deviance and Crime Chapter Outline What Is Deviance? Functionalist Perspectives on Deviance Conflict Perspectives on Deviance Symbolic Interactionist.
Chapter 6 Deviance and Crime What Is Deviance? Functionalist Perspectives on Deviance Interactionist Perspectives on Deviance Conflict Perspectives on.
CRIME. Crime (def): any act that is labeled as such by authorities, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government. Who commits crimes?
Chapter 4, Crime and Violence The Global Context: International Crime and Violence Sources of Crime Statistics Sociological Theories of Crime and Violence.
Crime and Social Control. Crime Definition: An act that is labeled as such by those in authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government.
Crime. There ought to be a law against…. Come up with 5 laws you think should be passed. Think about problems in the community, school, and society as.
Any act that is labeled as such by those in authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the gov’t.
Crime & Deviance Part 2: Crime & Capital Punishment.
SociologyChapter 8 Deviance and Social Control Preview Section 1: DevianceDeviance Section 2: CrimeCrime Chapter Wrap-Up.
CRIME CRIME – ANY ACT THAT IS LABELED AS SUCH BY THOSE IN AUTHORITY AND IS PROHIBITED BY LAW THERE CAN BE EXAMPLES IN WHICH ACTS ARE IMMORAL, BUT NOT.
Chapter 6 Deviance and Criminal Justice Defining Deviance Sociological Theories of Deviance Forms of Deviance Crime and Criminal Justice Deviance and Crime.
SOCIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 CONTROL AND DEVIANCE. SECTION 1.
Deviant Behavior and and Social Control Chapter 7.
Deviance and Social Control Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under.
Social Control and Deviance. Social Control Each society has norms that help society run smoothly Norms enforced by: – 1) Internalization Process by.
Social Deviance. Definition Individuals do not always internalize every norm of a society There are always individuals who break rules of their society.
Crime Chapter 8 Section 2. Crime Prohibited by law Punishable by the government.
CRIME. CRIME STATISTICS Crime – any act labeled by those in authority, prohibited by law, and punishable by the government Limits on Formal Filing of.
Chapter 7 Deviance and Social Control. Defining Deviance Norms determine whether behavior is deviant or normal. Norms vary from group to group, society.
DEVIANCE AND CRIME. Deviance Most people internalize social norms, but not even sanctions can bring about complete social control. Deviance is: Behavior.
Chapter 6 Deviance, Crime, and Social Control. Chapter Outline Conformity and Deviance Sociological Theories About Deviance Crime Mental Illness.
Chapter 7 Deviance, Crime and Social Control. Social Control Attempts by society to regulate people’s thought and behavior. –Conformity – going along.
SOCIOLOGY A Down-to-Earth Approach 8/e SOCIOLOGY Chapter Eight: Deviance and Social Control This multimedia product and its contents are protected under.
Chapter 8 Crime and Criminal Justice. Chapter Outline Crime and Deviance Types of Crime Organized Crime and Corporate Crime Race, Class, Gender.
Sociology Now 1 st Edition (Brief) Kimmel/Aronson *This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.
Chapter 7 Crime and Deviance. Chapter Outline Ordinary Crime The Criminal Act Biological Theories of Deviance Mental Illness Personality Theories.
Warm Up List as many school rules as you can think of.
CRIME AND JUSTICE IN AMERICA Crime in America Defining crime How much crime is there? Criminal victimization Crime and justice as public policy issues.
DEVIANCE THE RECOGNIZED VIOLATION OF CULTURAL NORMS –BIASED TOWARDS THE POSITIVE –BIASED TOWARDS THE NEGATIVE –“DIFFERENT” OR “UNEXPECTED” ARE WORDS OFTEN.
Deviance any variation from the social norm Macionis, Sociology Chapter Nine.
Crime and crime control system Akhtar Alam
Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2007 Chapter 7 Deviance In Conflict and Order: Understanding Society, 11 th edition This multimedia product and its contents.
Chapter Seven Deviance, Crime, and Social Control.
UNIT 2: WARMUP #6. CHAPTER 8 Deviance behavior that violates significant social norms.
Crime. What are the principle types of crime in the United States? What are the characteristics of the American criminal justice system?
Chapter 8: Deviance and Social Control Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach 7/e James M. Henslin Chapter Eight: Deviance.
Chapter 7 Deviance and Crime Copyright 2012, SAGE Publications, Inc.
DEVIANCE, CRIME, AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM CHAPTER 7.
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