3 Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication includes all behaviors, attributes, or objects (except words) that communicate messages that have social meaning.
4 What do you think? Knapp and Hall found that most people rely more on nonverbal messages. Nonverbal behaviors are 12-13 times more powerful in impact compared to the accompanying verbal message.
5 What is the relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication?
6 And, what is the importance of studying nonverbal communication?
Nonverbal communication has its special functions in our communication
8 Functions of Nonverbal Communication Complementing verbal behavior Repeating verbal behavior Regulating verbal behavior Substituting for verbal behavior Deceiving
9 Characteristics of nonverbal communication Occurs constantly Depends on context More believable than verbal A primary means of expression Related to culture Ambiguous, abstract and arbitrary
10 Types of Nonverbal Communication Facial expression, body movement (kinesics) Physical characteristics Touch Space Time Paralanguage Silence Smell Artifacts Environment
Kinesics and oculesics Kinesics is sometimes called body language, is any movement fo the face or body that communicates a message. ( Sieller and Beal, 2011, page 122) Eye behavior (oculesics) is a subcategory of facial expressions. Oculesics includes any movements of the eyes.
Eye Behavior - Oculesics 12 45% of interaction time looking at eyes We establish relationships with our eyes Eye behavior (Dale Leathers in Sieler and Beall, 2011) – influences attitude change and persuasion – indicates degree of interest – expresses emotions – regulates interaction – indicates power and status – forms impressions in others
14 Body Movements CategoriesMovements Emblems Illustrators Regulators Affect displays Adaptors Note: Some body movements may be classified under more than one category
15 Physical Characteristics Body type, attractiveness, height, weight, hair color, skin tone What is the role of physical appearance in communication in our culture? How does physical attractiveness influence communication?
16 Touch - Haptics Functional – professional touch Social – polite touch Friendship – warmth touch Love – intimacy touch Sexual – arousal touch
17 Space - Proxemics Proximity Zones – Intimate: 0-18” – Personal: 18” - 4’ – Social: 4’-12’ – Public: 12’ plus Territoriality is an aspect of proxemics which explains the need for us to identify certain amount of space as our own. To declare our space we use objects such as books or pencils etc.
18 Time - Chronemics Chronemics is the study of how people perceive, structure, and use time as communication Chronemics includes, how we manage our time, time expectations related to other people and people’s approach to time. Some people have these time approaches – Looking to the future – Living in the present – Longing for the past
Paralanguage - Vocalics 19 We used more than the words themselves for interpretation of messages Paralanguage or vocalics is the way people vocalise the words when they speak. Vocalics include speech sounds, speech rate, accents, articulations, pronounciations, groans, yawns, counghs, laughter, crying and vocal fillers such as “um”, “aaa”, “you know” etc.
Paralanguage - Vocalics The use of vocal fillers is usually through out the entire speech and is usually done without thinking by the speaker. It may reflect nervousness, a particular subculture or a personal habit. Vocal fillers can influence our image
22 Silence What role does silence play in communication? How comfortable are we with silence in our culture? Silence or vocal pauses are very powerful way to convey messages. Vocal pauses or hesitations are shorter than silence. Silence refers to an extented period of time without sound.
23 Smell - Olfactics What about smell? Does smell can be part of non-verbal communication?
24 Artifacts Artifacts are personal adornments or possessions that communicate information about a person Clothes, perfume, makeup, eyeglasses, hairstyles, beards, autos, etc. Artifacts should be consistent with and reinforce our intended messages.
25 Environment Psychological and physical surroundings in which communication occurs Furniture, architectural design, lighting conditions, temperature, smell, colors, sounds of the location, and the attitudes and perceptions of the participants. The best environment allows a speaker’s intended message to be delivered accurately.
Is nonverbal communication the “absolute” truth? Reveals all?
27 Interpreting Nonverbal Communication Why do we have such difficulty interpreting nonverbals? – Nonverbal cues have multiple meanings – Nonverbal cues are interdependent – Nonverbal cues are subtle
28 How do we improve our nonverbal communication effectiveness? Be observant of nonverbal messages Don’t jump to conclusions Use descriptive feedback Practice self-monitoring
29 Points to consider If verbal and nonverbal contradict, people believe nonverbal: reflect and consider your nonverbal communication If you are the audience: think of what your nonverbal communication says to the speaker If your are the speaker: read your audience and adapt Since so much communicative meaning is transmitted through nonverbal behaviors – consider the implication!
Main References: Seiler, W. J and Beall, M. L ( 2011). Communication. Making Connections ( 8 th ed). Boston: Pearson Verderber, R. F., and Verderber, K.S. ( 2005). Communicate! (11 th. Ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Connecting through nonverbal communication slides. (2008). Allyn and Bacon powerpoint slides. http://cobweb2.louisville.edu/faculty/regbruce/bruc e//mgmtwebs/commun_f98/Verbal.htm