17 Spatial Usage Personal space: the space that surrounds a person, moves with that person, and changes with the situation as well as moment to moment –Intimate distance: up to 18” –Personal distance: 18”-4’ –Social distance: 4’-12’ –Public distance: more than 12’
Spatial Use Acoustic space: area over which your voice or other sounds can be comfortably heard Territory: space over which we claim ownership Artifacts: objects we use to adorn our territory and communicate about our space 19
20 Personal Space at Work Personal Space at Work Your office Your desk A table in the cafeteria where you sit regularly Microsoft Photo
21 Color Influences Communication Yellow cheers and elevates moods Red excites and stimulates Blue comforts and soothes In some cultures black suggests mourning In some cultures white suggests purity
22 Self-Presentation Cues Physical Appearance –Race and gender –Facial features –Size and shape of body –Clothing and personal grooming –Body art
23 Self-Presentation What message do you wish to send with your choice of clothing and personal grooming? Microsoft Photo
Use of Time Chronemics Monochronic Polychronic Time Orientation Past Present Future 24
25 Time How do we manage and react to others’ management of time? –duration –activity –punctuality Microsoft Photo
Use of Smell Olfactory Communication through: –Perfume –Cologne –Aromatherapy –Body odor 26 Microsoft Photo
27 Cultural and Gender Variations Eye contact Facial expressions Gestures Touch Paralanguage Space Self-presentation
28 Nonverbal Signals Vary from culture to culture Microsoft Photo
30 What does this symbol mean to you? In the United States it is a symbol for good job In Germany the number one In Japan the number five In Ghana an insult In Malaysia the thumb is used to point rather than a finger -Atlantic Committee for the Olympic Games
31 Improving Nonverbal Sending Skills Be mindful of your nonverbal behavior. Adapt nonverbal behaviors to your purpose. Adapt nonverbal behaviors to the situation. Align nonverbal and verbal communication. Make sure nonverbal cues do not distract from your message. Eliminate distracting nonverbal behaviors.
32 Improving Nonverbal Interpretation Skills Be mindful that most nonverbal cues do not have set meanings. Recognize culture, gender, and other diversity when interpreting nonverbal cues. Pay attention to all of the nonverbal cues and their relationship to the verbal message. Use the skill of perception checking.