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Nonverbal Communication: What Does It Mean?  Nonverbal communication, defined: “messages expressed by nonlinguistic means.”  Why is “communicating without.

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Presentation on theme: "Nonverbal Communication: What Does It Mean?  Nonverbal communication, defined: “messages expressed by nonlinguistic means.”  Why is “communicating without."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nonverbal Communication: What Does It Mean?  Nonverbal communication, defined: “messages expressed by nonlinguistic means.”  Why is “communicating without speaking” not an accurate definition for nonverbal communication?  Why is “body language” not a sufficient definition for nonverbal communication? Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

2 Research shows…  Mehrabian (1972): 93% of emotional impact of a message come from a nonverbal source.  Birdwhistell (1970): 65/35 split of actions and words.  Social scientists: Nonverbal communication shapes perceptions. Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

3 All Behavior Has Communicative Value  Discuss your agreement or disagreement with the statement “you cannot not communicate.”  Research:  We aren’t always conscious of what we and others are communicating nonverbally. Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

4 Nonverbal Communication is Primarily Relational  Nonverbal communication serves in social function.  Defines the relationship we want/have with others.  Convey emotions we are unwilling/unable to express or unaware of.  How does technology impact the relational aspect of nonverbal communication? Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

5 Nonverbal communication is ambiguous.  Describe the various interpretations of silence.  Research: “Positive nonverbal communication is easier to identify than negative nonverbal communication.”  Use perception-checking to clarify others’ nonverbals. Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

6 Influencing Others  Nonverbal behavior helps us:  Capture attention  Show or increase liking  Generate power  Boost credibility  What other ways do we use nonverbal communication to influence others? Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

7 Managing Identity  Nonverbal cues: May be more important than verbal messages in creating impressions.  Manner: The way we act, stand and move, control facial expressions, vocal adjustments.  Appearance: The way we dress, artifacts we wear, hair, makeup, scents, etc.  Setting: Physical items we surround ourselves with i.e., personal belongings, vehicles, place we live. Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

8 Touch  Haptics: Study of touching.  Touch boosts mood, increases liking, improves compliance.  Research:  “Fleeting touches on hand or forearm can result in larger tips for restaurant servers.”  Beware unwanted touching: Concern/legal action.  Why do the authors say that the amount of touching decreases with age? Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

9 Voice  Paralanguage: The way a message is spoken  Vocal rate  Pronunciation  Pitch  Tone  Volume  Emphasis  Disfluencies: Reinforce/ contradict message that words convey.  What types of paralanguage contradict content?  Research:  Communicators more likely to comply when speakers have same rate as their own.  People often miss vocal nuances of sarcasm.  Young children can’t make sense of mixed messages. Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

10 Distance  Proxemics: How communication is affected by use, organization, and perception of space and distance.  We all have a bubble of personal space.  Research:  Distance = Good indication of prejudices.  Edward T. Hall:  Intimate distance: Skin contact to 18”  Personal distance: 18” to 4’.  Social distance: 4’ to 12’.  Public distance: 12’ to farthest zone. Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

11 Distance  What barrier behaviors occur when your “spatial bubble” is invaded?  Territoriality: The area that serves as an extension of our physical being.  How we respond to breaches of territory depends on who enters, what territory is entered, why they enter, and how they enter. Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.

12 Time  Chronemics: How humans use and structure time.  Waiting can be an indicator of status.  Use of time is culturally- based, yet rules of time vary within a culture.  Rules of time can vary within the same geographic area. Interplay, Eleventh Edition, Adler/Rosenfeld/Proctor Copyright © 2010 by Oxford University Press, Inc.


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