Presentation on theme: "Nonverbal behavior is often directly"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 5 Nonverbal Communication: The Messages of Action, Space, Time & Silence
2Nonverbal behavior is often directly linked to a culture’s worldview andvalue orientation.
3Importance of Nonverbal Communication: Judging internal states – people use nonverbal communication to express attitudes and emotions First impressions Managing interaction
4Defining nonverbal communication any message other than words that we assign meaning toFor U.S. & U.K. cultures:- 65% of a message is nonverbal - 35% is verbal - When the verbal message contradicts the nonverbal, people usually believe the nonverbal over the verbal
5Functions of nonverbal communication: - Repeating - Complementing (illustrators) – supplement the verbal- Substituting – substitute for the verbal words e.g. “ok” - Regulating – regulate interaction e.g. head nods; backchanneling- Contradicting - Expressing emotion – happiness, anger, sadness - Expressing affection – love; intimacy; endearment - Indicate status differences- Indicate type of relationship
6Principles of Nonverbal communication: You cannot stop sending nonverbal messages; You cannot, NOT communicate!Nonverbal communication is often ambiguousIn American culture & U.K., when the verbal message contradicts the nonverbal messages, we believe the nonverbal over the verbal (aka channel consistency vs.. channel discrepancy)Much of nonverbal communication is culture specific; culturally bound
7Types of Nonverbal Signals: - Physical appearance – dress; body type, skin color, hair, eye color, etc.Judgments of beauty are learned. Point: we need to be tolerant of external differences so that we do not let these differences impede communication.
8o emblems – substitute for words Body movement/kinesics – posture and gestures (using one’s hands and arms)o emblems – substitute for wordso illustrators – supplement the verbal o regulators – regulate interactionFacial expressions – “gosh!”, “really??!!”
9Eye contact & gaze In the U.S. culture & U.K. cultures: a sign of attention and interest regulates interaction the average length of gaze is 2.95 sec.(when gaze is < 1.18 sec., we tend to think the person is not interested, shy or preoccupied) direct eye contact is considered an expression of honesty and forthrightness
10Haptics a type of kinesic behavior involving touch reflects a culture’s attitudes and valuestypes: sexual, playful, control, ritual, greeting or departure, task-related, accidental, etc.some cultures are more touch avoidant than others.
11Smell Odor communicates Smell and memory are closely connected Smell can alter moods and increase alertness
12Paralanguage/vocalics The sounds we generate apart from words: rate, tone, pitch, pauses, volume, laughter, accents, dialects, noises & backchanneling (“mmm hmm”).
13Space & Distance or Proxemics a person’s use of space is directly related to the value system of his/her culture.personal space – when your space is violated, you react; your reaction is a manifestation of your cultural background.U.S. culture territory: 0 – 18” intimates 1 – 4’ casual personal distance 4 – 12’ impersonal/social distance 12’ > public distance - Seating – furniture arrangement; illustrate power & relationship
14Time/Chronemics How we use time communicates something. Culture plays a substantial role in how we perceive and use time.Our use of time is very much dictated by the values of our culture.- Past, Present & future time orientationsMonochronic (M-time) – time is fixed in nature; time is a scarce resourcePolychromic (P-time) – time is holistic; stress people over process; unstructured (p. 196)
15Silence silence communicates silence is also speech silence holds a powerful messageknowing when and when NOT to speak is to gain intercultural competencee.g. Japanese - “It is the duck that squawks that gets shot.” American – “The squeaky wheel gets the oil.”
16Types of Nonverbal Ability: Encoding skill Decoding ability (sensitivity) Skill in regulating or controlling nonverbal communication Competence regarding these abilities (skills) depends on knowing the rules of the specific culture.
17Nonverbal Communication and Culture: From your use of eye contact to the amount of volume you employ during interaction, your culture influences the manner in which you send and receive nonverbal symbols.Being able to achieve interaction goals (becoming competent) depends on knowing the rules of the culture(s) we’re dealing with.Be careful not to assume that people are communicating only when they talk.