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Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Chapter 5

2 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. It’s impossible not to communicate nonverbally Why?

3 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. There are many types of nonverbal communication including… Posture and gesture Face and eyes Voice Touch Physical appearance & attractiveness Distance and territory Time Physical environment

4 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Why are nonverbal skills important? Nonverbal sensitivity is a key part of emotional intelligence. Good nonverbal communicators are more persuasive than people who are less skilled. They have a greater chance of success in life.

5 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Social functions of nonverbal communications: Identity management: Project an image Relations: Gestures you use when meeting someone Conveying emotions. Especially useful in suggesting how others feel about you and the relationship.

6 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Nonverbal messages are more ambiguous than verbal communication. Why? How?

7 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Nonverbal communication has several important characteristics : It’s always present when people encounter each other and in many situations where they aren’t physically present. It has great value in conveying information about others. Much of that information isn’t what others intentionally want to reveal.

8 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Nonverbal communication serves many functions, when compared to verbal messages. It can repeat, complement, and accent spoken words. How? It can substitute for speech. It can regulate conversations. How? It can contradict spoken words, or even deceive others. How?

9 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Functions of Nonverbal Communication Repeating Emblems: Pointing – deliberate nonverbal behaviors that have precise meanings (directions) Shrugging shoulders

10 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Functions of Nonverbal Communication Complementing: Facial expressions match what’s being said (apology) Illustrators: Nonverbal behaviors that support spoken words

11 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Functions of Nonverbal Communication Accenting Pointing Regulating Sending unconscious send/receive cues Taking a breath ready to talk Contradicting Verbal and nonverbal don’t match

12 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. What might be the signs of someone deceiving you? Tend to make more speech errors (stutter, hesitate, false starts, etc) Vocal pitch may rise Eye may blink more May rapidly shift their posture May fidget more

13 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Culture shapes many nonverbal practices. How? Gender plays a role in the way we communicate. How?

14 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. How could you show the following in a nonverbal way: You’re bored You’re interested You’re happy You don’t understand You’re nervous You’re sad

15 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Impact of the Internet Misunderstandings E-mail Examples How can you avoid e-mail misunderstandings?

16 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Types of nonverbal communication Face and eyes Voice Touch Physical attractiveness Clothing Distance Time Territory Environment

17 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. FACE AND EYES Researchers Ekman and Friesen ID six basic emotions that facial expressions reflect: Surprise Fear Anger Disgust Happiness Sadness

18 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. FACE AND EYES Smiling cocktail waitresses get more tips Influence of a smile

19 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. POSTURE AND GESTURE How you sit “Kinesics” See someone slumping into a room, what might that mean?

20 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. VOICE “Paralanguage” is …. nonverbal, vocal messages. Listeners respond more to people who talk at the same rate as the listener.

21 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. TOUCH Touch increases a child’s mental functioning as well as physical health. Touch affects how we respond to others. Touch can communicate what? Positive, playful, control, aggression

22 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. TOUCH Factors: Area being touched, how long touch lasts, how much pressure used, movement after touch, anyone else present, relationship between the two people

23 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS Research shows it does make a difference in how people perceive others Women who are perceived as more attractive get more dates Children rate good looking children as having positive social characteristics

24 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. CLOTHING Clothing can be used to display economic status, educational level, social status, moral standards, athletic ability, etc. We are more likely to obey people dressed in a high-status manner.

25 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. DISTANCE The study of the way people and animals use space is called…. “proxemics.”

26 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. DISTANCE Research indicates we choose a distance depending upon how we feel toward the other person at a given time, context of the conversation, and our personal goals.

27 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. DISTANCE Choosing the optimal distance can have a powerful effect on communication. WHY?

28 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. DISTANCE Imitate distance: skin – 18 inches Emotionally close, doctor, dentist, etc Personal distance: 18 inches – 4 feet We can be uncomfortable in this zone. Why? Social distance: 4-12 feet Business situations Public distance: 12 feet+ Two-way communication more difficult

29 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. TIME What do we call the study of how humans use and structure time? “Chronemics” Our culture values time In others---it may be barely considered “Hawaiian” time

30 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. TERRITORY Territory is a fixed space: Room, house, neighborhood, country. How people use space can communicate a good deal about what? Power and status. High status people tend to be granted more territory and greater privacy. (Boss at work)

31 Understanding Human Communication, Ninth Edition Adler/Rodman Copyright © 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. ENVIRONMENT Physical environment affects communication. It creates perceptions.


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