2 OBJECTIVES Define the term non-verbal communication and its concepts Explain the nature of non-verbal behaviorsIllustrate non-verbal behaviorsDifferentiate the three primary elements of non-verbal communicationIdentify categories/dimensions of non-verbal behaviorsSynthesize the universal elements of non-verbal communication
3 Nonverbal Communication “Nonverbal communication is the transfer of meaningful information from one person to another by means other than written or spoken language.”Vaughan & Hogg (1998)
4 Categories of Nonverbal Communication Sign language – includes all those codes in which numbers, words, and punctuation signs have been supplanted or replaced by gesturesAction language – encompasses all movements that are not used exclusively as signals.Object language – embraces all intentional and non-intentional display of material things, such as art objects, implements, machines, architectural structures, and the human body and whatever clothes it.
5 DIMENSIONS of NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Body motion or kinesicsPhysical characteristicsTouching behavior or hapticsParalanguageProxemicsArtifactsEnvironmental factorsKnapp (1972)
6 DIMENSIONS of NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Body communication* gestural communication* facial communication* eye communication* touch communicationSpace communication* Proxemics* Territoriality* Aesthetics and colorsSilence, paralanguage, and temporal communication* silence* paralanguage* timeJoseph de Vito (1986)
7 Principles of Nonverbal Messages Nonverbal communication, like verbal communication, is contextual.Nonverbal behaviors are wholes not parts or segments.Nonverbal behaviors always communicate.Nonverbal communication follows certain rules.Nonverbal communication is motivated.Nonverbal communication is more credible than verbal behavior.Nonverbal communication often refers to other communications.
8 Joseph de Vito’s Universals of Nonverbal Messages Nonverbal UniversalPrincipleContextualNonverbal communication cannot be isolated from its context.PackagedNonverbal behaviors occur in clusters; usually consistent with other nonverbal and verbal meanings.CommunicativeAll nonverbal behaviors send a message.Rule-governedIt follows rules embedded in culture.MotivatedAll nonverbal behaviors occur with some reason, identifiable or not.CredibleNonverbal cues are more highly believable than verbal ones.MetacommunicationalIt refers or comments on verbal and other nonverbal messages, by reinforcing or contradicting.
9 Categories of Nonverbal Communication 1. Body Motion or Kinesic Behavior (moving/dynamic)a) Emblems - nonverbal acts which correspond to a direct verbal translation or dictionary definitionb) Illustrators – nonverbal acts that accompany speechc) Affect Displays – verbal affective statements or messages can be repeatedd) Regulators – head nods and eye movementse) Adaptors – most difficult to define because we are generally unaware of it2. Physical Characteristics (non-moving or static)3. Touching Behavior (Haptics)
10 Categories of Nonverbal Communication 4. Paralanguage a) Voice qualities – pitch range, pitch control, rhythm, control, tempo, articulation control, resonance, glottis control, vocal lip control b) Vocalizations – vocal characterizers, vocal qualifiers, vocal segregates 5. Proxemics 6. Artifacts 7. Environmental factors
11 “Public distance” – Edward T. Hall Classification of interhuman distance according to Gronbeck et al. (1994)a) Intimate distance ranges from up to 1 ½ feetb) Personal distance – ranges from 1 ½ to 4 feetc) Social distance – ranges from 4 to 12 feetd) Public distance – ranges from 12 feet up
12 Functions of Nonverbal Communication RepeatingContradictingSubstitutingComplementingAccentingRelating and Regulating