Presentation on theme: "Types of Subordinate Clauses DIRECTECTIONS: Read through this and do the exercises at the end. Use Google Aps L. Nabulsi."— Presentation transcript:
1 Types of Subordinate Clauses DIRECTECTIONS: Read through this and do the exercises at the end. Use Google ApsL. Nabulsi
2 Noun ClausesNoun clauses can refer to a single thing without specifying what it is. A noun clause is a set of words which, altogether, acts as one noun. They have a subject and a verb, but very often the subject is a word like "what" or "who" and has no meaning without the rest of the noun clause. For example, in the sentence "I don't know what he told you," "what he told you" is a noun clause. The subject of the clause is "what," which has no meaning in the sentence without the rest of the clause. The set, "what he told you," acts as a single noun --- the object of the verb "know."Read more:
3 Adjective ClausesUse adjective clauses to describe your nouns. An adjective clause modifies a noun or a verb, just like a single-word adjective. For example, in the sentence "The table, which was green, wobbled," "which was green" modifies the noun "table," so it is an adjective clause. This type of subordinate clause can begin with an adverb like "where" or "when," but don't be fooled --- it's still an adjective clause. In "I wanted to go yesterday, when it was sunny," "when it was sunny" is an adjective clause because it describes "yesterday" and not the main verb of the sentence.
4 Adverb ClausesIn "When I'm 64," the title of the song is an adverb clause. An adverb clause describes the action in the independent clause. These can be a little harder to spot than the other two types of subordinate clauses, because they don't always immediately follow the verb, the way a normal adverb usually does. In the sentence "Sally wrapped the snake around her arm because she wanted to scare her brother," "because she wanted to scare her brother" is an adverb clause. It doesn't come right after the verb "wrapped," but that's still what it's describing --- it tells why Sally did what she did. Adverb clauses answer questions like "where?", "why?", "when?" or "in what circumstances?"Sometimes, adverb clauses are easier to see if you think of them as describing the conditions for the independent clause. In the sentence "Let's throw tomatoes at him when he sings off-key," "when he sings off-key" describes the whole idea of "let's throw tomatoes at him," so it's an adverb clause.Usage
5 UsageWhere do you find subordinate clauses in sentences? Everywhere. They can come before the subject ("Because it was hot, we carried fans."); after the subject ("Alice, who was hot, carried a fan."); or after the object ("People carry fans when it is this hot."). They can act as the subject ("What I saw was bigger than an elephant.") or as the object ("I see what you're talking about."). Use them to add variety and richness to your language, instead of using the same structure for each sentence you write.
6 How to write complex sentences DIRECTIONS: USE THE FOLLOWING STEPS TO HELP YOU BOTH RECOGNIZE AND WRITE COMPLEX SENTENCES.How to write complex sentences
7 Things to Know Things You'll Need Definition and example An independent clauseA dependent clauseCommasRead more:Has a subject and a predicate; can stand alone as a sentence.Begins with a subordinate conjunction, has a subject and predicate but can not stand alone as a sentence; is a sentence fragmentCommas separate the dependent clause from the independent when the dependent clause BEGINS the sentence.
8 Step One1 Add a subordinating conjunction to the dependent clause. Frequently used subordinating conjunctions include after, if, once, unless, when, since and because.EXAMPLE: SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS IN REDSince he wanted a carUnless he gets a jobWhen he graduates from high schoolIf he gets his licenseOnce he makes the honor rollAfter she passes the test Read more:
9 Step TwoPlace a comma after the dependent clause when making a complex sentence. For example, "Although I drove all day, I am not tired." The word "although" is a subordinating conjunction. Note that the part of the sentence with the subordinating conjunction is a dependent clause and the part of the sentence after the comma is an independent clause.Read more:
10 Step ThreeLeave out the comma when the subordinating conjunction comes after the dependent clause. For example, "I am tired after driving all day." Note that the clause that follows the subordinating conjunction ("after") is a dependent clause, not a complete sentence. Read more:
11 Step FourUse a relative pronoun to form a complex sentence. Some examples of relative pronouns include that, which, whose and what. The relative pronoun introduces a dependent clause and describes a noun or a pronoun. For example, "I got a score of 10, which is the highest score you can get." The first part of the sentence, the independent clause, can stand on its own, and the second part of the sentence adds information.Read more:
12 REMEMBER Relative Pronouns also form complex sentences: 'Who' refers to people‘which' refer to things.'that' refers to people or thingsRead more:
13 REVIEW – simple sentence A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. In the following simple sentences, subjects are in yellow, and verbs are in green. A. Some students like to study in the mornings. B. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon. C. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.The three examples above are all simple sentences. Note that sentence B contains a compound subject, and sentence C contains a compound verb. Simple sentences, therefore, contain a subject and verb and express a complete thought, but they can also contain a compound subjects or verbs.
14 REVIEW – compound sentence A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. In the following compound sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red. A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping. C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping.The above three sentences are compound sentences. Each sentence contains two independent clauses, and they are joined by a coordinator with a comma preceding it. Note how the conscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses. Sentences B and C, for example, are identical except for the coordinators. In sentence B, which action occurred first? Obviously, "Alejandro played football" first, and as a consequence, "Maria went shopping. In sentence C, "Maria went shopping" first. In sentence C, "Alejandro played football" because, possibly, he didn't have anything else to do, for or because "Maria went shopping." How can the use of other coordinators change the relationship between the two clauses? What implications would the use of "yet" or "but" have on the meaning of the sentence?
15 REVIEW Complex sentences A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In the following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red. A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies. E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and D, a comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B, C, and E, no comma is required. If a comma is placed before the subordinators in sentences B, C, and E, it is wrong.Note that sentences D and E are the same except sentence D begins with the dependent clause which is followed by a comma, and sentence E begins with the independent clause which contains no comma. The comma after the dependent clause in sentence D is required, and experienced listeners of English will often hear a slight pause there. In sentence E, however, there will be no pause when the independent clause begins the sentence.
16 Identify the dependent clause by making it BOLD A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies. E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.
18 Work CitedAll instructional information in this PowerPoint was taken fromMitchel, Stephanie. “Types of Subordinate Clauses.” eHow mom WEB. 27 NovOrAdvanced Composition for Non-Native Speakers of English