2 A sentence can be defined as a group of words expressing a complete thought. A clause is defined as a group of words containing a subject and a predicate.
3 Subject and PredicateSubject: The Subject is the part of sentence that shows what the sentence is about, or who or what performs the action.Example: Moby is a robot.In this sentence, “Moby” is the subject.Predicate: The Predicate is the part of the sentence containing the verb and stating something about the subject.In this sentence, the predicate would be “is a robot.”
4 Independent and Dependent Clauses A sentence can be one or more independent clauses or the combination of a dependent clause and an independent clause.An Independent Clause is a group of related words that can stand alone as a complete sentence.Example: I like listening to music.A Dependent Clause is a group of words that cannot stand alone.Example: while I exercise“while I exercise” cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. It needs to be attached to an independent clause.
6 Simple SentenceA Simple Sentence is a sentence consisting of an independent clause with a single orcompound (more than one) subject and predicate.Examples:The dog chased the cat.Jane got an A+ on her math and spelling tests.Henry and his brother went swimming and fishing.
7 Compound SentenceA compound sentence is a sentence that contains two or more independent clauses combined by one or more coordinating conjunctions or a semicolon.Examples:The dog chased the cat, but the cat got away.This sentence uses “but” to join two independent clauses.Jane is a model student; she got an A+ on her spelling test.This sentence uses a semi-colon to join two independent clauses.
9 Compound SentencesTo create a compound sentence, use either a comma and a coordinating conjunction or a semi-colon. Then add another sentenceExample:I like reading. I sort of like writing. I don’t like giving oral reports.I like reading, and I sort of like writing, but I don’t like giving oral reports.I love swimming; it’s my favorite sport.
10 Commas with Coordinating Conjunctions To join two or more sentences, place a comma at the end of the first complete sentence, add one of the appropriate coordinating conjunctions, and add the next complete sentence.Examples:I am reading Hoot, and my friend is reading The Outsiders.I went to the beach yesterday, but I never wentin the water.
11 SemicolonsSemicolons (;) can be used to join two complete sentences that share a similar thought. When using a semicolon, you don’t need to capitalize the first letter of the second sentence.Examples:The boy is going home; he intends to stay there.Words like however, therefore, moreover, and nevertheless, can also be used with semicolons.The boy is going home; however, he intends to return soon.
12 Complex SentencesA Complex Sentence is a sentence that contains an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.Examples:Alex likes listening to music while he exercises.Whenever he’s at the gym, Alex likes listening to music while he exercises.
13 Subordinating Conjunctions AfterAlthoughAsAs ifAs thoughBecauseBeforeIfSinceThanThoughTillUnlessUntilWhenWheneverWhereWhereasWhereverWhileYou can begin and/or end your sentence with a subordinating conjunction (dependent clause).You usually won’t need a comma when you place the subordinating conjunction and dependent clause at the end of a sentence.When you begin a sentence with a subordinating conjunction and dependent clause, you will need to place a comma before the independent clause. (just like this sentence)
14 Compound Complex Sentences A compound-complex sentence is a sentence with at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.Examples:Since I started reading Hoot, I’ve been reading it every chance I get, and I’m almost finished with it.Although Officer Delinko sometimes acts like a fool, his heart is in the right place, and he always tries to do what is right.
15 Review What is a sentence? What is an independent clause? What is a dependent clause?What is a simple sentence?What is a compound sentence?What is a complex sentence?What is a compound-complex sentence?