2Why Do We Need Simple, Complex, and Compound Sentences? To make your writing more interesting!Too many simple sentences will make your writing seem choppy and immature.Too many long sentences are hard to understand.
3Simple SentencesA simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought.In the following simple sentences, subjects are in pink, and verbs are in green.
4Examples of Simple Sentences A. Some students like to study in the mornings.B. Joe and Arthur play football every afternoon.C. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.
5Notice that… …Sentence B has a compound subject And… Sentence C has a compound verbSo…Simple sentences express a complete thought and can have a simple subject and verb or can have a compound subject and/or verb.
6Compound SentencesA compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator (a conjunction)What are conjunctions? (remember “Conjunction Junction?) F.A.N.B.O.Y.S. (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)Except for very short sentences, conjunctions are always preceded by a commaIn the following sentences, subjects are in Pink, verbs are in green, conjunctions are in blue.
7Examples of Compound Sentences A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. B. Tom played baseball, so Maria went shopping. C. Tom played baseball, for Maria went shopping.
8Notice that…Each sentence contains two independent clauses, and they are joined by a coordinator with a comma before it. The conscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses. Sentences B and C, for example, are identical except for the coordinators. In sentence B, which action occurred first?
9Complex SentencesA complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses.A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which (these are just examples—there are more!)
10“A WHITE BUS” Subordinators A : after, although, asWH : when, whereas, while, whenever, wherever, whether or notI : in case, ifT : thoughE : even though, even ifB : before, becauseU : until, unlessS : since, so (that)
11Complex SentencesIn the following complex sentences, subjects are in pink, verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red.
12Examples of Complex Sentences A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies. E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.
13Notice that…When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as in sentences A and D, a comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B, C, and E, no comma is required. If a comma is placed before the subordinators in sentences B, C, and E, it is wrong.