2Sentences (1) A. Some students like to study in the mornings. Simple sentences: A simple sentence contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. In the following simple sentences, subjects are in red, and verbs are in green. The three examples above are all simple sentences. Note that sentence B contains a compound subject, and sentence C contains a compound verb. Simple sentences, therefore, contain a subject and verb and express a complete thought, but they can also contain compound subjects or verbs. A. Some students like to study in the mornings. B. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon. C. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.
3Sentences (2)Compound Sentences: A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. In the following compound sentences, subjects are in red, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in blue. A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping. C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping.The above three sentences are compound sentences. Each sentence contains two independent clauses, and they are joined by a coordinator with a comma preceding it. Note how the conscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses. Sentences B and C, for example, are identical except for the coordinators. In sentence B, which action occurred first? Obviously, "Alejandro played football" first, and as a consequence, "Maria went shopping. In sentence C, "Maria went shopping" first. In sentence C, "Alejandro played football" because, possibly, he didn't have anything else to do, for or because "Maria went shopping."
4Sentences (3)Complex Sentences: A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In the following complex sentences, subjects are in red, verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in blue.A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies. E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.
5Sentences (4)Minor Sentences: A Minor Sentence is one that does not necessarily have a main verb in it, but which can be understood as a complete unit of meaning.Example: 'What time are you leaving?’'Three.' Here, Three is a minor sentence; it has no verb, but the listener will understand that the person means I am leaving at three o'clock.
6Sentences (5)Command: A command is a type of sentence that gives a direction or an order to do something. Also known as an imperative sentence, a command can be punctuated with a period or an exclamation mark.E.G. ‘Beware of dog!’
7Sentences recap... What type of sentences are these? The ice melts quickly.Lying exposed without its blanket of snow, the ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.Canada is a rich country, but still it has many poor people.My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.Run!Yes.
8Other language features Enjambment: A run-on line of poetry in which logical and grammatical sense carries over from one line into the next.E.G. ‘Looking as if she were alive. I callThat piece a wonder, now...’End-stopped line: An end-stopped line is a line of poetry which has a natural pause at the end, usually because of punctuation.E.G. ‘That’s my last Duchess painted on the wall,Looking as if she were alive. I call’
9MoreHyphenated phrase: A phrase composed of a noun and a present participle (“-ing” word) must be hyphenated.E.G. “The antenna had been climbed by thrill-seeking teenagers who didn’t realise the top of it was electrified.”Pun: The humorous use of a word or phrase so as to emphasize or suggest its different meanings or applications, or the use of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning. A pun is a play on words.
10AdverbsAn adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as ‘how,’ ‘when,’ ‘where,’ ‘how much.’E.G. The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes.In this sentence, the adverb ‘quickly’ modifies the verb ‘made’ and indicates in what manner (or how fast) the clothing was constructed.E.G. The boldly spoken words would return to haunt the rebel.In this sentence the adverb ‘boldly’ modifies the adjective ‘spoken.’
11Poetic DevicesSimile: a comparison between two things that are not alike using like, as or as though.E.G. ‘My love is like a red, red rose.’Metaphor: a comparison between two things that are not alike without using an explicitly comparative word.E.G. ‘My love is a red, red rose.’Personification: the endowment of inanimate objects or abstract concepts with human qualities.E.G. ‘The clouds marched angrily across the sky.’
12Poetic Devices (2)Assonance: the repetition of similar vowel sounds in a sentence or line of poetry.E.G. “I rose and told him of my woe.”Alliteration: the repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the beginning of words.E.G. “Fetched fresh, as I suppose, off some sweet wood.”Onomatopoeia: The use of words to imitate the sounds they describe.E.G. ‘Buzz’, ‘Crack.’
13Reading poetryPersona: in poetry persona is understood as the speaker in the poem and revealed through the voice speaking in the poem. Persona may be the voice of the poet or a created character. Persona also implies a situation or context for the poem’s speaker. Through voice we hear and feel the emotional contour of the poem and its underlying theme.Ask yourself:who is speaking?What is the speaker’s point of view? (First person, second person, third person?)How do the word choices, sound patterns and diction indicate the voice?What does the speaker reveal about themselves and their situation?What words and images show the voice, and persona in the poem?