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1 Presentation made by: sakura023
Biotechnology Presentation made by: sakura023

2 Biotechnology Bio- life; living organisms; tissues
Technology- improves quality scientific method of achieving a practical purpose Biotechnology- any technique that uses living organisms or substance from organism to: Make or modify a product Improve plants or animals Develop microorganisms for specific uses

3 Application of Biotechnology
Production of new and improved foods Industrial chemicals Pharmaceuticals Livestock/farm animals (chicken, cows, cattle) Diagnostic for detesting diseases Therapies that use genes to cure diseases Recombinant vaccines two types of DNA’s

4 How does Biotechnology work?
Allows scientist to look close at genes and make improvements with them Gregor Mendel- was the one of the first people to study how traits are passed from parents to the young Allows for a scientist to study: How plants grow and how they react to environment

5 Biotechnology help the health of the earth and people by:
Grow more food Protect the environment Grow more nutritious food

6 Field of Science that deals with Biotechnology
Genetic engineering Computer science Biochemistry Microbiology Physiology Cell and Molecular Biology


8 Biotechnology- has long history. - humans have been using
Biotechnology- has long history humans have been using organisms for century Example: Domestication of animals Fermentation of some yeast Breakdown of sugars and produce alcohol/ CO2 Selective breeding of plants and animals Gene cloning Genetic engineering and recombinant DNA

9 Three Eras of Biotechnology

10 Ancient Biotechnology- start if fermentation
Ancient Biotechnology- start if fermentation - early history as related to food and includes domestication Classical Biotechnology - built on ancient biotechnology Fermentation promoted food medicine Modern Biotechnology – manipulates genetic information in organisms, genetic engineering

11 Ancient Biotechnology
Paleolithic period – people live in mobile camps and survive by hunting years ago , establishment of agrarian society involvement of agriculture 6 000 years ago, early farmers arrived with crops and plants

12 Ancient Biotechnology
Nikolas I. Vavilov  identified 8 primary center of origin of plants  collected and catalogued thousands of plants and animals Bread- one of the earliest food Bread, wine, cheese, beer, yogurt- were produced by fermentation

13 Ancient Biotechnology
4 000 B.C., Chinese use lactic acid producing bacteria for making yogurt, mold for cheese and acetic acid for wine vinegar 6 000 B.C. – B.C., - beer making started in Egypt and wine is accidentally made.

14 Classical Biotechnology
1700s – large production of alcohol 1833 – introduction of the bottom fermentation—a process in which the yeast remains at the bottom of the vat – expansion of commercial fermentation - antibiotics (penicillin) were produced primarily because of World War

15 Classical Biotechnology
1950s – biotransformation technology—convert cholesterol to other steroids 1960s – microbial cells were being produced on a large scale as a source of protein

16 Modern Biotechnology 1590 – Zacharias Janssen- compound microscope
1838 – Matthias Schleiden- development cell theory -all living plant tissue was composed of cell 1858 – refined cell theory by Rudolf Virchow “all cells arise from cells” and that cell is the basic unit of life

17 Individuals Who Contributed in Biotechnology

18 Individuals Who Contributed in Biotechnology
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek - -Discovered cell -Bacteria -Protists -Red blood cells in 1680 Gregor John Mendel – discovered genetics

19 Individuals Who Contributed in Biotechnology
Walter Sutton – discovered chromosomes Thomas Hunt Morgan – discovered how genetics are transmitted through chromosomes Ernst Ruska – invented electron microscope Sir Alexander Fleming – discovered penicillin

20 Individuals Who Contributed in Biotechnology
Rosalind Elsie Franklin – research led to discovery of the double helix structure of DNA James Watson and Francis Crick – discovered DNA Mary-Claire King – mapped human genes for research of cancer treatments Ian Wilmut – created the first truw clone, the Dorset ewe, DOLLY

21 4 Branches of Biotechnology
1. Medical Biotechnology (Red Biotechnology) Applied to medical processes like the use of organisms for the production of drugs or antibiotics 2. Plant Biotechnology (Agriculture or Green Biotechnology) Goal is to expand more environment friendly solution

22 3. Industrial Biotechnology (White & Gray Biotechnology) - Organisms are modified/ designed and used for various purposes, like production of the new chemicals; production of plastic substitutes (biopolymers); development of new kinds of vehicle fuels and fibers for clothing

23 4. Marine Biotechnology (Aquatic or Blue Biotechnology)
Includes processes in aquatic processes like unwanted growth of noxious water born organisms Relatively rare


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