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Biotechnology Unlocking the secrets of life

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1 Biotechnology Unlocking the secrets of life

2 What is Biotechnology? Definition:
The use of living organisms to make or improve a product Bio (life) technology (the application of knowledge for practical use

3 Where did it begin? Ancient bread baking Wine brewing Cheese making
Yogurt fermentation Animal and plant breeding

4 Biotechnology Today Focuses on how to change microorganisms, plants and animals Scientist isolated and made changes to DNA in the early 1970’s DNA carries the “Blueprint” Genes are units of DNA

5 Techniques Gene Mapping Tissue Culture Biofermentation Biotechnology
Cloning Gene Transfer

6 Genetic Engineering Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology Removes gene(s) from one organism and either: Transfers them to another Puts them back in the original with a different combination Transgenic

7 Techniques Genetic Mapping Tissue Culture Biofermentation Cloning
Locating specific genes within heredity material Tissue Culture Modified cells can grow into whole plants Biofermentation Mass production of modified microorganisms Cloning Reproducing genetically identical animals

8 Biotechnology in Agriculture (Plants)
Crops Built in insect and herbicide resistance Built in tolerance to environmental conditions Improved color and quality Pharmaceuticals Plants that produce edible vaccines Food Improved taste and nutrition Improved handling qualities

9 Biotechnology in Agriculture (Plants)
Industrial plants that produce plastics, fuels, and other products plants for environmental cleanup Other pesticides made from naturally-occurring microorganisms and insects

10 Biotechnology in Agriculture (Animals)
Breeding Disease tolerance Exact copies of desired stock Increased yields Health Microorganisms introduced into feed for beneficial purposes Diagnostics for disease and pregnancy detection Animals engineered to to produce organs suitable for transplantation into humans

11 Biotechnology in Agriculture (Animals)
Food Increased milk production leaner meat in pork growth hormones in farm-raised fish that result in earlier market-ready fish Pharmaceuticals Animals engineered to produce human proteins for drugs, including insulin and vaccines

12 Assignment Develop a timeline of events outlining advances in the field of biotechnology. You may use the World Wide Web in the Career Center to search for these events. Your timeline should have at lease five events. The search engine is a good start.

13 History of Biotechnology
1860’s-Botanist Gregor Mendel recognizes heredity information is stored in units (now called genes) 1870’s-chromosomes are discovered 1953-DNA Double Helix is discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick (England)

14 History of Biotechnology
1968-a process was developed for identifying chromosomes (Switzerland) 1973-First successful combining of DNA from unrelated organisms (recombinant DNA) (USA) 1978-First test tube baby (Louise Brown) was born in England

15 History of Biotechnology
1984-Sheep and goat embryo cells are fused together to create a sheep-goat 1986-Light-producing gene of firefly is transferred to tobacco creating tobacco plants with glowing leaves 1987-calf cloned from an embryo

16 History of Biotechnology
1991-sheep created that makes drug in milk to treat cystic fibrosis 1994-first transgenic food approved (Flvr Savr) tomato 1996-goat injected with a human gene produces an anticancer drug 1997-Adult sheep cloned (“Dolly”)

17 Industry In 1998 there were 1,300 biotechnology companies in the Unites States small start up companies one product or service large multinational corporations combine research and production

18 Industry In 1997 the overall biotechnology sales increases 20%
13 billion dollar industry Over 93 billion dollars invested

19 Careers In 1998 biotechnology included about 140,000 jobs
Jobs for high school graduates to PhD’s Provides over 17,000 jobs in North Carolina $850 million dollar payroll

20 Career Examples Laboratory work Experimental Farms Field jobs
working on gene maps growing plants from cells working with animal embryos Experimental Farms Field jobs Industry jobs manufacturing regulatory affairs (FDA, USDA) sales

21 Education High School Courses Post-secondary Basic Biology Agriculture
Biotechnology Post-secondary Biology Microbiology Genetics Biochemistry

22 Education North Carolina has an online biotechnology center
Information on NC Biotechnology Educational Opportunities News Hot Topics

23 Assignment Research two different careers related to biotechnology
Find information regarding: Salary Education Job Description Job Demand Write a one paragraph summary for each career Keep the summaries in your notes

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