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1 FE-411 FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY Prof. Dr. Mehmet D. Öner Grading 2 Hourly exams 20 % each Laboratory 20 % Final exam 40 %

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Presentation on theme: "1 FE-411 FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY Prof. Dr. Mehmet D. Öner Grading 2 Hourly exams 20 % each Laboratory 20 % Final exam 40 %"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 FE-411 FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY Prof. Dr. Mehmet D. Öner Grading 2 Hourly exams 20 % each Laboratory 20 % Final exam 40 %

2 2 1-Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts by Michael L. Shuler, Fikret Kargi,Michael L. ShulerFikret Kargi Prentice Hall Ptr; 2 edition (October 31, 2001) 2-Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline M. Doran, Elsevier Science & Technology Books,5th ed Principles of Fermentation Technology by P F STANBURY, A. WHITAKER, S. Hall,P F STANBURYA. WHITAKERS. Hall Butterworth-Heinemann;2 edition(May 3, 1999) 4- Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods by Robert W. Hutkins IFT press, Blackwell Publishing, 2006

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9 9 How are the many fields and disciplines of Biotechnology organized?

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11 11 Biotechnology: Biotechnology is the scientific activity concerning the integrated application of biochemistry, microbiology and process technology on biological systems on the behalf of industrial processes and environmental management.. Biotechnology: Biotechnology is the scientific activity concerning the integrated application of biochemistry, microbiology and process technology on biological systems on the behalf of industrial processes and environmental management.. Biochemical engineering The application of engineering principles to biologically based processes (in fermentation processes: manipulating living cells so as to promote their growth and production in a desired way); Maximize productivity Minimize costs Biochemical engineering The application of engineering principles to biologically based processes (in fermentation processes: manipulating living cells so as to promote their growth and production in a desired way); Maximize productivity Minimize costs

12 12 Biotechnology Sub-Divisions Red biotechnology - applied to medical processes; Examples: designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, engineering genetic cures to cure diseases through genomic manipulation. Red biotechnology - applied to medical processes; Examples: designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, engineering genetic cures to cure diseases through genomic manipulation.medicalantibioticsgenomic manipulationmedicalantibioticsgenomic manipulation White biotechnology - known as grey biotechnology, applied to industrial processes. Example: designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical; tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes when used to produce industrial goods. White biotechnology - known as grey biotechnology, applied to industrial processes. Example: designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical; tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes when used to produce industrial goods.industrial Green biotechnology - applied to agricultural processes. Example - designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environmental conditions or in the presence (or absence) of certain agricultural chemicals. Green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture. Example: engineering a plant to express a pesticide, thereby eliminating the need for external application of pesticides. Green biotechnology - applied to agricultural processes. Example - designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environmental conditions or in the presence (or absence) of certain agricultural chemicals. Green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture. Example: engineering a plant to express a pesticide, thereby eliminating the need for external application of pesticides.agriculturaltransgenic plantspesticideagriculturaltransgenic plantspesticide Blue biotechnology - the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare. Blue biotechnology - the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.

13 13 It is a process that has resulted in improved nutrition, taste, quality and freshness of many foods today.

14 14 History of Biotechnology

15 15 Stages of Biotech Ancient Ancient Classical Classical Modern Modern

16 16 Ancient Biotech Not known when biotech began exactly Not known when biotech began exactly Focused on having food and other human needs Focused on having food and other human needs

17 17 Ancient Biotech Begins with early civilization Begins with early civilization Developments in agriculture and food production Developments in agriculture and food production Few records exist Few records exist

18 18 Classical Biotech Follows ancient Follows ancient Makes wide spread use of methods from ancient, especially fermentation Makes wide spread use of methods from ancient, especially fermentation Methods adapted to industrial production Methods adapted to industrial production

19 19 Classical Biotech Produce large quantities of food products and other materials in short amount of time Produce large quantities of food products and other materials in short amount of time Meet demands of increasing population Meet demands of increasing population

20 20 Classical Biotech Many methods developed through classical biotech are widely used today. Many methods developed through classical biotech are widely used today.

21 21 Modern Biotech Manipulation of genetic material within organisms Manipulation of genetic material within organisms Based on genetics and the use of microscopy, biochemical methods, related sciences and technologies Based on genetics and the use of microscopy, biochemical methods, related sciences and technologies

22 22 Modern Biotech Often known as genetic engineering Often known as genetic engineering Roots involved the investigation of genes Roots involved the investigation of genes

23 23 People in Biotech

24 24 Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Developed single lens microscope in 1670’s Developed single lens microscope in 1670’s First to observe tiny organisms and document observations First to observe tiny organisms and document observations

25 25 Gregor Mendel Formulated basic laws of heredity during mid 1800’s Formulated basic laws of heredity during mid 1800’s Austrian Botanist and monk Austrian Botanist and monk Experimented with peas Experimented with peas

26 26 Johan Friedrich Miescher Swiss Biologist Swiss Biologist Isolated nuclei of white blood cells in 1869 Isolated nuclei of white blood cells in 1869 Led to identification of nucleic acid by Walter Flemming Led to identification of nucleic acid by Walter Flemming

27 27 Ernst Ruska Build the first electron microscope in 1932 Build the first electron microscope in 1932 German electrical engineer German electrical engineer Microscope offered 400X magnification Microscope offered 400X magnification

28 28 Alexander Fleming ( British) Discovered penicillin in 1928 Discovered penicillin in 1928 First antibiotic drug used in treating human disease First antibiotic drug used in treating human disease Observed growth of molds (Penicillium genus) in a dish that also contacted bacteria then bacteria close to the molds were dead Observed growth of molds (Penicillium genus) in a dish that also contacted bacteria then bacteria close to the molds were dead

29 29 Alexander Fleming Extracting and purifying the molds took a decade of research Extracting and purifying the molds took a decade of research Penicillin first used in 1941 Penicillin first used in 1941

30 30 Watson and Crick James Watson James Watson Francis Crick Francis Crick Collaborated to produce the first model of DNA structure in 1953 Collaborated to produce the first model of DNA structure in 1953

31 31 Watson and Crick Described DNA dimensions and spacing of base pairs Described DNA dimensions and spacing of base pairs Had major impact on genetic engineering carried out today Had major impact on genetic engineering carried out today

32 32 Watson Born in the US Born in the US Crick – born in England Crick – born in England Collaborative research at Cambridge University in England Collaborative research at Cambridge University in England

33 33 Norman E. Borlaug(USA) Developed wheat varieties producing high yields Developed wheat varieties producing high yields Developed wheat variety that would grow in climates where other varieties would not Developed wheat variety that would grow in climates where other varieties would not

34 34 Borlaug Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 Nobel Peace Prize in 1971 Credited with helping relieve widespread hunger in some nations Credited with helping relieve widespread hunger in some nations

35 35 Ian Wilmut (british) Cloning of a sheep named Dolly in 1997 Cloning of a sheep named Dolly in 1997 Produced from tissue of an adult sheep Produced from tissue of an adult sheep Previous cloning efforts had been from early embryos Previous cloning efforts had been from early embryos

36 36 DEFINITION OF FOOD FERMENATION: Microbial(1) activities(2), usually anaerobic(3), on suitable substrate under controlled(4) or uncontrolled (5) conditions resulting(6) in the production of desirable (7) foods or beverages which are characteristicaly more stable(8), palatable(9) and nutritious(10) than the raw substrate.

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38 38 Where to work? 1-Fermentation industry beer, wine, dairy fermentation, pickling, oriental fermented foods 2- Industrial fermentations organic acids, antibiotics, medicine 3-New product development genetic engineering 4-Teaching, Research, Extension, University, Government, Industry

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