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HUM 101 Spring semester 2013-2014 Lecturer: Faruk Berat AKCESME (MSc)

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Presentation on theme: "HUM 101 Spring semester 2013-2014 Lecturer: Faruk Berat AKCESME (MSc)"— Presentation transcript:

1 HUM 101 Spring semester 2013-2014 Lecturer: Faruk Berat AKCESME (MSc)

2 Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

3 Here we see bean has many seed coat colors and patterns in nature Nature has a rich source of variation

4  Blue Biotechnology  Green Biotechnology  Red Biotechnology  White Biotechnology

5  To describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.  the application of molecular and cellular biology to marine and fresh water organisms for the purpose of identifying, developing, and enhancing products derived from these organisms

6  Applied to agricultural processes.  Examples: domestication of plants via micropropagation designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environments in the presence (or absence) of chemicals. Green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture

7  Applied to medical processes.  Examples: examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics

8  Applied to industrial processes  Example: designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical using of enzymes as industrial catalysts to either produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous/polluting chemicals An industrial biotechnology plant for the production of modified wheat starch and gluten


10  1675  Discovers bacteria using a simple microscope

11  1863  Austrian monk who conducted the first genetics experiments using pea plants in the mid 1800s.  Often considered the founder of genetics.

12  1870’s  Disproved the notion of spontaneous generation, describing the role of bacteria in spoilage and the scientific basis for fermentation  Created the rabies vaccine

13  1665  Invented the compound light microscope  First to observe cells in cork

14  1953  Englishmen responsible for the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA using X-ray photographs

15  1972  Stanford University scientist who first developed recombinant DNA technology, a method for insertion of genetic material from one organism into another.


17  Origins of “biotechnology” emerge in methods of food production and plant and animal breeding Use of bacteria to produce cheese (food preservation) Use of natural enzymes in yogurt Use of yeast to produce bread Use of fermentation for producing wine and beer

18  DNA is discovered in trout sperm by German Miescher

19  The word “biotechnology” is first used by a Hungarian agricultural engineer.

20  Widespread work is undertaken to investigate the structure and function of DNA

21  The U.S. Supreme Court approves the patenting of genetically altered organisms.

22  A variety of GMO’s and biotechnology techniques are introduced in fields from agriculture to medicine Recombinant DNA technology-extracts DNA from one organism for use in another, allowing more rapid and specific improvements in plants and animals Plant Tissue Culture-gains widespread acceptance as a method to quickly and cheaply produce genetically identical plants

23  First transgenic organisms (GMO’s) are introduced in widespread agricultural production, particularly in the area of crops. Bt corn and soybeans are introduced offering “natural” insect resistance by the introduction of a gene from the bacterium Baccillus thuringensis

24  Dolly is the first animal cloned from diploid cells is produced in Scotland

25  Human cloning is outlawed in the U.S. and the first concerns over the use of human stem cells in research begin to arise.

26  Also called genetically modified organisms (GMO), or GE foods (Genetically engineered).  Created by inserting DNA from one organism into another (I.e. fish genes into apples) OR modifying an organism’s DNA to attain a desirable trait. (I.e. a tomato with reversed DNA to slow down ripening).

27  In 1994, the Flavr Savr tomato was introduced as the first GM food. It is supposed to be“tastier, firmer and fresher” than the average tomato.  Golden rice – enriched rice containing beta-carotene (Vitamin A). This vitamin is not found in normal rice.  Bt corn – corn containing a chemical normally found in bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis). This is toxic to insects, not humans. Insects try to eat the plant and die.  Herbicide resistant plants (roundup ready corn). These plants are immune to a certain herbicide, so they live while all the other plants in the field are killed.


29  Reduces the use of pesticide  Decreases soil erosion  Helps protect water  Conserves land & fossil fuels

30 Farmers are able to see higher crop yields with biotechnology crops due to: Less competition in the field between crop and weeds; Less crop loss due to insect damage or plant disease.

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