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Biotechnology Unit 3.04.

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Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology Unit 3.04."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biotechnology Unit 3.04

2 What is Biotechnology? Use of living organisms and biological processes to solve problems or make useful products Bio- “living system” Technology- “the use of scientific knowledge and tools to solve problems or make useful products”

3 History of Biotechnology
We began growing crops and raising animals 10,000 years ago We have used biological processes of microorganisms for 6,000 years to make useful food products, such as bread and cheese, and preserve dairy products Today a wealth of sophisticated bio -techniques and processes are helping to create a new roadmap for future scientific discovery

4 Biotechnology Today A collection of technologies that capitalize on the attributes of cells and put biological molecules such as DNA, and proteins, to work for us,. Each living cell is like a tiny manufacturing plant it takes raw materials such as food, air and water, and uses them to make products like enzymes, some types of drugs and industrial chemicals

5 Biotech Companies Many concentrate on producing medicines, known as biopharmaceuticals, that are made by biological processes rather than by chemical synthesis. An entire field of biotechnology exists that uses genetic technology for food and agricultural purposes

6 Tools of biotechnology
Bioprocessing Technology: uses living cells or the molecular components of the cells’ manufacturing machinery to produce desired products Microbial Fermentation-form of bioprocessing has been used for thousands of years to brew beer, make wine, leaven bread and pickle foods Microbial cells, from animals or plants and grown in the laboratory to produce desired products

7 Tools of biotechnology
Genetic Engineering (recombinant DNA technology): the use of enzymes that occur naturally within cells to manipulate the genes of any organism, and to move genes from one organism to another A human gene was successfully incorporated into bacteria for the first time in 1977 EX) The gene for human insulin has been inserted into E. Coli, resulting in bacteria that produce insulin for people diabetes

8 Agricultural Application
Society’s demand for resources provided by plants and animals will increase as the world’s population grows Biotechnology can help meet the ever-increasing need by improving yields, decreasing crop inputs such as water and fertilizer and providing pest control methods that are less destructive to the environment

9 Crop Biotechnology Purposefully crossbred plants with desirable traits to produce offspring that combine the best traits of both parents Today virtually every crop plant grown commercially for food or fiber is a product of crossbreeding Ex) Taking bacterial gene that yields a protein toxic, to an insect pest and transfer it to a plant. The plant then produces the protein and is protected from the insect without the help of externally applied chemical pesticides The development of biofuels such as methane and ethanol from corn as a raw material will help the United States reduce its dependence on foreign oil supplies

10 Forest Biotechnology Wood provides us with fuel, construction materials, and paper Biotechnology is helping to create disease and insect resistant trees and to increase their growth rates Because trees absorb carbon dioxide, any advance that allows us to increase tree yields without cutting down forest could have significant positive effects on global warming

11 Animal Biotechnology Improving animal health: Farm Animals- enhanced ability to detect, treat and prevent disease and other problems, therefore increasing livestock & poultry productivity Companion Animals- animal vaccines, preventing rabies, distemper, feline leukemia and hepatitis

12 Animal Biotechnology Enhancing Human Medical Applications: Transgenic Animal: is one that carries a foreign gene that has been deliberately inserted into its genome EX) Transgenic animals such as cows, sheep and goats can be genetically modified so they produce human proteins in their milk. These proteins can be extracted and purified from the milk and formulated into drugs to treat diseases, including emphysema, cystic fibrosis, burns, gastrointestinal infections and immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS.

13 Animal Biotechnology Enhancing Animal Products: Improved animal health from the use of vaccines, medicines and diagnostic tests results in safer foods for consumers Protecting the Environment and Helping Conserve Endangered Species: Reproductive and cloning technologies , as well as medicines and vaccines developed for use in livestock and poultry also can help save endangered mammals and birds

14 Medical & Health Care Products
Knowing the molecular basis of health and disease has led to improved and novel methods for treating and preventing diseases Quicker and more accurate diagnostic tests as well as new and safer vaccines EX) Home pregnancy tests that provides more accurate results much earlier than previous tests Treatments for diseases are derived from biological substances and processes designed by nature

15 Chemical & Environmental Applications
Industrial Biotechnology Chemical companies turn raw materials such as salt and crude oil into products such as plastics Yields new methods of monitoring environmental conditions and detecting pollutants Employing new techniques of modern molecular biology to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing

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