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History of Biotechnology

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Presentation on theme: "History of Biotechnology"— Presentation transcript:

1 History of Biotechnology
By Akrum Hamdy

2 Stages of Biotech Ancient Classical Modern

3 Ancient Biotech Begins with early civilization
Developments in ag and food production Few records exist

4 Ancient Biotech Archeologists research
Ancient carvings and sketches sources of information

5 Classical Biotech Follows ancient
Makes wide spread use of methods from ancient, especially fermentation Methods adapted to industrial production

6 Classical Biotech Produce large quantities of food products and other materials in short amount of time Meet demands of increasing population

7 Classical Biotech Many methods developed through classical biotech are widely used today.

8 Modern Biotech Manipulation of genetic material within organisms
Based on genetics and the use of microscopy, biochemical methods, related sciences and technologies

9 Modern Biotech Often known as genetic engineering
Roots involved the investigation of genes

10 Ancient Biotech Not known when biotech began exactly
Focused on having food and other human needs

11 Ancient Biotech Useful plants brought from the wild, planted near caves where people lived As food was available, ability to store and preserve emerged

12 Ancient Food preservation most likely came from unplanned events such as a fire or freeze

13 Domestication 15,000 years ago, large animals were hard to capture
People only had meat when they found a dead animal Came up with ways of capturing fish and small animals

14 Domestication Food supplies often seasonal
Winter food supplies may get quite low Domestication is seen by scientists as the beginning of biotech

15 Domestication Adaptation of organisms so they can be cultured
Most likely began 11,000 – 12,000 years ago in the middle east

16 Domestication Involved the collecting of seed from useful plants and growing crude crops from that seed Involved the knowledge that the seed had to properly mature

17 Domestication Proper planting
Need for water, light and other conditions for plant growth Earliest plants likely grains and other seeds used for food

18 Domestication Raising animals in captivity began about the same time in history Easier to have an animal close by that to hunt and capture a wild one

19 Domestication Learned that animals need food and water
Learned about simple breeding How to raise young

20 Domestication Cattle, goats and sheep were the first domesticated food animals

21 Domestication About 10,000 years ago, people had learned enough about plants and animals to grow their own food The beginning of farming.

22 Food Domestication resulted in food supplies being greater in certain times of the year Products were gathered and stored

23 Food Some foods rotted Others changed form and continued to be good to eat Foods stored in a cool cave did not spoil as quickly

24 Food Foods heated by fire also did not spoil as quickly
Immersing in sour liquids prevented food decay

25 Food preservation Using processes that prevent or slow spoilage
Heating, cooling, keeps microorganisms (mo’s) from growing

26 Food preservation Stored in bags of leather or jars of clay
Fermentation occurs if certain mo’s are present Creates an acid condition that slows or prevents spoilage

27 Cheese One of the first food products made through biotechnology
Began some 4,000 years ago Nomadic tribes in Asia

28 Cheese Strains of bacteria were added to milk Caused acid to form
Resulting in sour milk

29 Cheese Enzyme called “rennet” was added
Rennet comes from the lining of the stomachs of calves

30 Cheese Rennet is genetically engineered today
Not all cheese is made from produced rennet

31 Yeast Long used in food preparation and preservation Bread baking
Yeast produces a gas in the dough causing the dough to rise

32 Yeast Fermented products Vinegar
Require the use of yeast in at least one stage of production

33 Yeast Species of fungi Some are useful Some may cause diseases

34 Vinegar Ancient product used to preserve food
Juices and extracts from fruits and grains can be fermented

35 Fermentation Process in which yeast enzymes chemically change compounds into alcohol In making vinegar the first product of fermentation is alcohol

36 Fermentation Alcohol is converted to acetic acid by additional microbe activity Acid gives vinegar a sour taste Vinegar prevents growth of some bacteria

37 Vinegar Keeps foods from spoiling Used in pickling
Biblical references to wine indicate the use of fermentation some 3,000 years ago

38 Fermentation control In ancient times, likely happened by accident
Advancements occurred in the 1800’s and early 1900’s

39 Fermenters Used to advance fermentation process
Specially designed chamber that promotes fermentation

40 Fermenters Allowed better control, especially with vinegar
New products such as glycerol, acetone, and citric acid resulted

41 Development Of yeasts that were predictable and readily available led to modern baking industry

42 Antibiotics Use of fermentation hastened the development of antibiotics A drug used to combat bacterial infections

43 Antibiotics Penicillin Developed in the late1920’s
Introduced in the 1940’s First drug produced by microbes

44 Antibiotics Many kinds available today
Limitations in their use keep disease producing organisms from developing immunity to antibiotics

45 Antibiotics Use antibiotics only when needed.
Overuse may make the antibiotic ineffective when really needed later

46 Antibiotics Some disease organisms are now resistant to certain antibiotics Used in both human and vet medicine

47 Modern Biotech Deals with manipulating genetic info
Microscopy and advanced computer technology are used In-depth knowledge of science

48 Modern Biotech Based on genetics research from the mid 1800’s

49 Genetics Study of heredity
Most work has focused on animal and plant genetics Genes – determiners of heredity

50 Genes Carry the genetic code
Understanding genetic structure essential for genetic engineering

51 Heredity How traits are passed from parents to offspring
Members of the same species pass the characteristics of that species

52 Heredity Differences exist within each species.
Differences are known as variability

53 Heredity &variability
Are used in modern biotechnology

54 Modern Biotech Use of biotech to produce new life forms
Emerged in mid 1900’s Made possible by rDNA technology

55 rDNA Recombinant DNA Process
Genetic material is moved from one organism to another Materials involved are quite small

56 rDNA Challenging and often controversial
Many have opposing or negative views of biotechnolgy

57 People in Biotech Zacharias Janssen
Discovered the principle of the compound microscope in 1590 Dutch eye glass maker

58 Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Developed single lens microscope in 1670’s
First to observe tiny organisms and document observations

59 Anton V.L. Work led to modern microscopes
Electron microscope developed in 1931 by group of German scientists

60 Gregor Mendel Formulated basic laws of heredity during mid 1800’s
Austrian Botanist and monk Experimented with peas

61 Mendel Studied inheritance of seven pairs of traits
Bred and crossbred thousands of plants Determined that some traits were dominant and other recessive

62 Mendel Findings were published in 1866 Largely ignored for 34 years

63 Johan Friedrich Miescher
Swiss Biologist Isolated nuclei of white blood cells in 1869 Led to identification of nucleic acid by Walter Flemming

64 Walter Sutton Determined in 1903 that chromosomes carried units of heredity identified by Mendel Named “genes” in 1909 by Wilhelm Johannsen, Danish Botanist

65 Thomas Hunt Morgan Studied genetics of fruit flies Early 1900’s
Experimented with eye color His work contributed to the knowledge of X and Y chromosomes

66 Thomas Hunt Morgan Nobel Peace Prize in 1933 for research in gene theory

67 Ernst Ruska Build the first electron microscope in 1932
German electrical engineer Microscope offered 400X magnification

68 Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin in 1928
First antibiotic drug used in treating human disease Observed growth of molds (Penicillium genus) in a dish that also contracted bacteria

69 Alexander Fleming Bacteria close to the molds were dead
Extracting and purifying the molds took a decade of research Penicillin first used in 1941

70 Alexander Fleming Penicillin credited with saving many lives during WWII when wounded soldiers developed infections.

71 Rosalind Elsie Franklin
Research in France and England in mid 1900’s Led to discovery of structure of DNA Her early research was used to produce an atomic bomb

72 Rosalind Franklin Set up X ray diffraction lab
Photographs of DNA showed that it could have a double helix structure

73 Rosalind Franklin Some questions surround the theft of her work in 1952 Including x ray photographs

74 Watson and Crick James Watson Francis Crick
Collaborated to produce the first model of DNA structure in 1953

75 Watson and Crick Described DNA dimensions and spacing of base pairs
Had major impact on genetic engineering carried out today

76 Watson Born in the US Crick – born in England
Collaborative research at Cambridge University in England

77 Norman E. Borlaug Developed wheat varieties producing high yields
Research in Mexico Semi dwarf varieties Developed wheat variety that would grow in climates where other varieties would not

78 Borlaug Nobel Peace Prize in 1971
Credited with helping relieve widespread hunger in some nations

79 Mary Clare King Research into nature of DNA during late 1900’s
Determined that 99% of human DNA is identical to chimpanzee

80 Mary Clare King 1975 found similar gene pools between humans and chimpanzee made it possible to research hereditary causes of breast cancer

81 Ian Wilmut Cloning of a sheep named Dolly in 1997
Produced from tissue of an adult sheep Previous cloning efforts had been from early embryos

82 Research Use of systematic methods to answer questions.
Problems may be basic or applied

83 Basic Require generating new info to gain understanding
Applied – involve use of knowledge already acquired.

84 Research Supplies facts that can be used to improve a process or product Settings range from elaborate labs to field plots

85 Field Plot Small area of land that is used to test questions or hypothesis Belief is that same result would be obtained if carried out on larger scale

86 Field Plots Often tested several times Known as replication

87 Research Done by agencies, universities, private companies, individuals Biotech research in ag is carried out by ag experiment stations and large corporations

88 Development Creation of new products or methods based on findings of research Carefully studied before being put into full scale use

89 Development New products tested before approval
Government agencies such as the FDA are involved Prototype is developed – research model that is carefully tested

90 Prototype Becomes a pattern for the production of similar products
After being fully tested, full scale production begins.

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