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History of BiotechnologyBy Akrum Hamdy
Stages of Biotech Ancient Classical Modern
Ancient Biotech Begins with early civilizationDevelopments in ag and food production Few records exist
Ancient Biotech Archeologists researchAncient carvings and sketches sources of information
Classical Biotech Follows ancientMakes wide spread use of methods from ancient, especially fermentation Methods adapted to industrial production
Classical Biotech Produce large quantities of food products and other materials in short amount of time Meet demands of increasing population
Classical Biotech Many methods developed through classical biotech are widely used today.
Modern Biotech Manipulation of genetic material within organismsBased on genetics and the use of microscopy, biochemical methods, related sciences and technologies
Modern Biotech Often known as genetic engineeringRoots involved the investigation of genes
Ancient Biotech Not known when biotech began exactlyFocused on having food and other human needs
Ancient Biotech Useful plants brought from the wild, planted near caves where people lived As food was available, ability to store and preserve emerged
Ancient Food preservation most likely came from unplanned events such as a fire or freeze
Domestication 15,000 years ago, large animals were hard to capturePeople only had meat when they found a dead animal Came up with ways of capturing fish and small animals
Domestication Food supplies often seasonalWinter food supplies may get quite low Domestication is seen by scientists as the beginning of biotech
Domestication Adaptation of organisms so they can be culturedMost likely began 11,000 – 12,000 years ago in the middle east
Domestication Involved the collecting of seed from useful plants and growing crude crops from that seed Involved the knowledge that the seed had to properly mature
Domestication Proper plantingNeed for water, light and other conditions for plant growth Earliest plants likely grains and other seeds used for food
Domestication Raising animals in captivity began about the same time in history Easier to have an animal close by that to hunt and capture a wild one
Domestication Learned that animals need food and waterLearned about simple breeding How to raise young
Domestication Cattle, goats and sheep were the first domesticated food animals
Domestication About 10,000 years ago, people had learned enough about plants and animals to grow their own food The beginning of farming.
Food Domestication resulted in food supplies being greater in certain times of the year Products were gathered and stored
Food Some foods rotted Others changed form and continued to be good to eat Foods stored in a cool cave did not spoil as quickly
Food Foods heated by fire also did not spoil as quicklyImmersing in sour liquids prevented food decay
Food preservation Using processes that prevent or slow spoilageHeating, cooling, keeps microorganisms (mo’s) from growing
Food preservation Stored in bags of leather or jars of clayFermentation occurs if certain mo’s are present Creates an acid condition that slows or prevents spoilage
Cheese One of the first food products made through biotechnologyBegan some 4,000 years ago Nomadic tribes in Asia
Cheese Strains of bacteria were added to milk Caused acid to formResulting in sour milk
Cheese Enzyme called “rennet” was addedRennet comes from the lining of the stomachs of calves
Cheese Rennet is genetically engineered todayNot all cheese is made from produced rennet
Yeast Long used in food preparation and preservation Bread bakingYeast produces a gas in the dough causing the dough to rise
Yeast Fermented products VinegarRequire the use of yeast in at least one stage of production
Yeast Species of fungi Some are useful Some may cause diseases
Vinegar Ancient product used to preserve foodJuices and extracts from fruits and grains can be fermented
Fermentation Process in which yeast enzymes chemically change compounds into alcohol In making vinegar the first product of fermentation is alcohol
Fermentation Alcohol is converted to acetic acid by additional microbe activity Acid gives vinegar a sour taste Vinegar prevents growth of some bacteria
Vinegar Keeps foods from spoiling Used in picklingBiblical references to wine indicate the use of fermentation some 3,000 years ago
Fermentation control In ancient times, likely happened by accidentAdvancements occurred in the 1800’s and early 1900’s
Fermenters Used to advance fermentation processSpecially designed chamber that promotes fermentation
Fermenters Allowed better control, especially with vinegarNew products such as glycerol, acetone, and citric acid resulted
Development Of yeasts that were predictable and readily available led to modern baking industry
Antibiotics Use of fermentation hastened the development of antibiotics A drug used to combat bacterial infections
Antibiotics Penicillin Developed in the late1920’sIntroduced in the 1940’s First drug produced by microbes
Antibiotics Many kinds available todayLimitations in their use keep disease producing organisms from developing immunity to antibiotics
Antibiotics Use antibiotics only when needed.Overuse may make the antibiotic ineffective when really needed later
Antibiotics Some disease organisms are now resistant to certain antibiotics Used in both human and vet medicine
Modern Biotech Deals with manipulating genetic infoMicroscopy and advanced computer technology are used In-depth knowledge of science
Modern Biotech Based on genetics research from the mid 1800’s
Genetics Study of heredityMost work has focused on animal and plant genetics Genes – determiners of heredity
Genes Carry the genetic codeUnderstanding genetic structure essential for genetic engineering
Heredity How traits are passed from parents to offspringMembers of the same species pass the characteristics of that species
Heredity Differences exist within each species.Differences are known as variability
Heredity &variabilityAre used in modern biotechnology
Modern Biotech Use of biotech to produce new life formsEmerged in mid 1900’s Made possible by rDNA technology
rDNA Recombinant DNA ProcessGenetic material is moved from one organism to another Materials involved are quite small
rDNA Challenging and often controversialMany have opposing or negative views of biotechnolgy
People in Biotech Zacharias JanssenDiscovered the principle of the compound microscope in 1590 Dutch eye glass maker
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Developed single lens microscope in 1670’sFirst to observe tiny organisms and document observations
Anton V.L. Work led to modern microscopesElectron microscope developed in 1931 by group of German scientists
Gregor Mendel Formulated basic laws of heredity during mid 1800’sAustrian Botanist and monk Experimented with peas
Mendel Studied inheritance of seven pairs of traitsBred and crossbred thousands of plants Determined that some traits were dominant and other recessive
Mendel Findings were published in 1866 Largely ignored for 34 years
Johan Friedrich MiescherSwiss Biologist Isolated nuclei of white blood cells in 1869 Led to identification of nucleic acid by Walter Flemming
Walter Sutton Determined in 1903 that chromosomes carried units of heredity identified by Mendel Named “genes” in 1909 by Wilhelm Johannsen, Danish Botanist
Thomas Hunt Morgan Studied genetics of fruit flies Early 1900’sExperimented with eye color His work contributed to the knowledge of X and Y chromosomes
Thomas Hunt Morgan Nobel Peace Prize in 1933 for research in gene theory
Ernst Ruska Build the first electron microscope in 1932German electrical engineer Microscope offered 400X magnification
Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin in 1928First antibiotic drug used in treating human disease Observed growth of molds (Penicillium genus) in a dish that also contracted bacteria
Alexander Fleming Bacteria close to the molds were deadExtracting and purifying the molds took a decade of research Penicillin first used in 1941
Alexander Fleming Penicillin credited with saving many lives during WWII when wounded soldiers developed infections.
Rosalind Elsie FranklinResearch in France and England in mid 1900’s Led to discovery of structure of DNA Her early research was used to produce an atomic bomb
Rosalind Franklin Set up X ray diffraction labPhotographs of DNA showed that it could have a double helix structure
Rosalind Franklin Some questions surround the theft of her work in 1952 Including x ray photographs
Watson and Crick James Watson Francis CrickCollaborated to produce the first model of DNA structure in 1953
Watson and Crick Described DNA dimensions and spacing of base pairsHad major impact on genetic engineering carried out today
Watson Born in the US Crick – born in EnglandCollaborative research at Cambridge University in England
Norman E. Borlaug Developed wheat varieties producing high yieldsResearch in Mexico Semi dwarf varieties Developed wheat variety that would grow in climates where other varieties would not
Borlaug Nobel Peace Prize in 1971Credited with helping relieve widespread hunger in some nations
Mary Clare King Research into nature of DNA during late 1900’sDetermined that 99% of human DNA is identical to chimpanzee
Mary Clare King 1975 found similar gene pools between humans and chimpanzee made it possible to research hereditary causes of breast cancer
Ian Wilmut Cloning of a sheep named Dolly in 1997Produced from tissue of an adult sheep Previous cloning efforts had been from early embryos
Research Use of systematic methods to answer questions.Problems may be basic or applied
Basic Require generating new info to gain understandingApplied – involve use of knowledge already acquired.
Research Supplies facts that can be used to improve a process or product Settings range from elaborate labs to field plots
Field Plot Small area of land that is used to test questions or hypothesis Belief is that same result would be obtained if carried out on larger scale
Field Plots Often tested several times Known as replication
Research Done by agencies, universities, private companies, individuals Biotech research in ag is carried out by ag experiment stations and large corporations
Development Creation of new products or methods based on findings of research Carefully studied before being put into full scale use
Development New products tested before approvalGovernment agencies such as the FDA are involved Prototype is developed – research model that is carefully tested
Prototype Becomes a pattern for the production of similar productsAfter being fully tested, full scale production begins.
Introduction to Biotechnology
The New Genetics Courtesy: NearingZero.netNearingZero.net.
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