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The New Genetics Courtesy: NearingZero.netNearingZero.net.

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1 The New Genetics Courtesy: NearingZero.netNearingZero.net

2 History of Biotechnology before 8000 BC – Collecting of seeds for replanting. Evidence that Mesopotamian people used selective breeding (artificial selection) practices to improve livestock. around 7000 BC – Brewing beer, fermenting wine, baking bread with help of yeast BC BC – Yogurt and cheese made with lactic-acid-producing bacteria by various cultures – The microscope is invented by Zacharias Janssen – Microorganisms discovered by Anton van Leeuwenhoek – Gregor Mendel discovered the laws of inheritance – Louis Pasteur discovered the bacterial origin of fermentation – Karl Ereky, a Hungarian agricultural engineer, first used the word biotechnology – Alexander Fleming noticed that a certain mold could stop the duplication of bacteria, leading to the first antibiotic: penicillin – James D. Watson and Francis Crick describe the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, called DNA for short.

3 History of Biotechnology 1972 – The DNA composition of chimpanzees and gorillas is discovered to be 99% similar to that of humans – Method for producing monoclonal antibody developed by Kohler and Milstein – – Modern biotech is characterized by recombinant DNA technology. The prokaryote model, E. coli, is used to produce synthetic insulin and other medicine, in human form. (It is estimated that only 5% of diabetics were allergic to animal insulins available before, while new evidence suggests that type 1 diabetes mellitus is caused by an allergy to human insulin). – A viable brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1026, acts as a modifier of the microflora in the rumen of cows and digestive tract of horses). – The United States Supreme Court, in 447 U.S. 303 (1980), rules in favor of microbiologist Ananda Chakrabarty in the case of a USPTO request for a first patent granted to a genetically modified living organism (GMO) in history – Nutrigenomics as applied science in animal nutrition – U.S. FDA approves of the first GM food: the "Flavr Savr" tomato – British scientists, led by Ian Wilmut, from the Roslin Institute report cloning a sheep called Dolly the sheep using DNA from two adult sheep cells.

4 2000 – Completion of a "rough draft" of the human genome in the Human Genome Project – Researchers sequence the DNA of rice, the main food source for two-thirds of the world's population. Rice is the first crop to have its genome decoded – GloFish, the first biotech pet, hits the North American market. Specially bred to detect water pollutants, the fish glows red under black light thanks to the addition of a natural bioluminescence gene – – November – Korean researchers treat spinal cord injury by transplanting multipotent adult stem cells from an umbilical cord blood. – December – A team of researchers at the University of Paris develops a method to produce large number of red blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells, creating an environment that mimics the conditions of bone marrow – – January – Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison differentiate human blastocyst stem cells into neural stem cells, and finally into spinal motor neuron cells. Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_biotechnology" History of Biotechnology

5 Modern Biotechnology some examples Recombinant DNA Stem cell therapy Cloning Designer drugs Genomics Proteomics Gene Therapy What are the potential benefits? What are the potential dangers? What are the ethical issue?

6 Genetically Modified Bacteria

7 Cloning: An Example

8 Cloning in Agriculture

9

10 Courtesy: NearingZero.netNearingZero.net

11 Stem Cells: Another Example

12 Gene Therapy


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