Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Biotechnology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fundamentals of Biotechnology Lecture # 3 Introduction & History of Biotechnology Recombinant TechnologyBy: Haji AkbarM Phil
2 Biotechnology is most briefly “the art of utilizing living organisms and their products for the production of food, drink, medicine or for other benefits to the human race, or other animal species”.
3 Humans have been making use of biotechnology since their life on earth. e.g. Discovered farming,Animal breedingCross-pollination of plants and cross-breeding of animals (used to enhance product quality and/or meet specific requirements or standards).
4 Most significant, life-altering discoveries. The discovery of microorganisms and the subsequent burst of knowledge related to the causes of infectious diseases, antibiotics and immunizations.
5 Current scientific methods are more specific than historical techniques, as scientists now directly alter genetic material using techniques known as recombinant DNA technology.
6 Subjects Involved With Biotechnology Multidisciplinary- involving a number of disciplines that are coordinated for a desired outcomeScienceLife sciencesPhysical sciencesSocial sciencesMathematicsApplied sciencesComputer applicationsEngineeringAgriculture
7 Stages of Biotechnology Development Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domesticationClassical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicineModern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering
8 Benefits of Biotechnology MedicineHumanVeterinaryBiopharmingEnvironmentAgricultureFood productsIndustry and manufacturing etc.
9 The legends in Biotechnology Anton van Leeuwenhoek(father of Microbiology)Discovered cells
10 Gregor Johan MendelDiscovered Genetics(father of Genetics)
16 Ernst RuskaInvented the electron microscope (in 1933).
17 Mary-Claire KingMapped human genes for research of cancer treatments
18 Ian WilmutCreated the first true clone, the Dorset ewe Dolly
19 Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology is a field of molecular biology in which scientists "edit" DNA to form new synthetic molecules, which are often referred to as "chimeras".Recombinant DNA technology works by taking DNA from two different sources and combining that DNA into a single molecule.Recombinant DNA is a type of DNA that is artificially created by inserting a strand or more of DNA into a different set of DNA. often referred to as rDNA for short.
20 Recombinant DNA technology Recombinant DNA technology is one of the recent advances in biotechnology, which was developed by two scientists named Boyer and Cohen in 1973.
21 Basic principle of recombinant DNA technology The DNA is inserted into another DNA molecule called ‘vector’The recombinant vector is then introduced into a host cell where it replicates itself
22 Steps involved recombinant DNA technology 1. DNA molecules are digested with enzymes called restriction endonucleases which reduces the size of the fragments Renders them more manageable for cloning purposesCan be called Restriction digestion
23 2. These products of digestion are inserted into a DNA molecule called a vector Enables desired fragment to be replicated in cell culture to very high levels in a given cell (copy #)
24 3. Introduction of recombinant DNA molecule into an appropriate host cell Transformation or transfectionEach cell receiving rDNA = CLONEMay have thousands of copies of rDNA molecules/cell after DNA replicationAs host cell divides, rDNA partitioned into daughter cells
25 4. Population of cells of a given clone is expanded, and therefore so is the rDNA. AmplificationDNA can be extracted, purified and used for molecular analysesInvestigate organization of genesStructure/functionActivationProcessingGene product encoded by that rDNA can be characterized or modified through mutational experiments
26 Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology Large-scale production of human proteins by genetically engineered bacteria.Such as : insulin, Growth hormone, Interferons andBlood clotting factors (VIII & IX)
27 Production of Human Insulin 1) Obtaining the human insulin geneHuman insulin gene can be obtained by making a complementary DNA (cDNA) copy of the messenger RNA (mRNA) for human insulin.
28 2)Joining the human insulin gene into a plasmid vector The bacterial plasmids and the cDNA are mixed together. The human insulin gene (cDNA) is inserted into the plasmid through complementary base pairing at sticky ends.
29 3)Introducing the recombinant DNA plasmids into bacteria The bacteria E.coli is used as the host cell. If E. coli and the recombinant plasmids are mixed together in a test-tube.
30 4)Selecting the bacteria which have taken up the correct piece of DNA The bacteria are spread onto nutrient agar. The agar also contains substances such as an antibiotic which allows growth of only the transformed bacteria. (selective media)
31 2. Vaccine Development 3. recombinant factor 8 and recombinant factor 9 made by genetic engineering are now available for hemophilia A and B. 4. Gene therapy for genetic diseases