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Introduction to Biotechnology
Biotechnology helps to meet our basic needs. Food, clothing, shelter, health and safety
Biotechnology Improvements by using science Science helps in production plants, animals and other organisms
Biotechnology Also used in maintaining a good environment that promotes our well being
Biotechnology Using scientific processes to get new organisms or new products from organisms.
Biotechnology Large area Includes many approaches and methods in science and technology
Office of Tech Assessment Definition Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals….
Cont. Or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.
Agricultural View All of the applied science based operations in producing food, fiber, shelter, and related products
Agricultural View Milk production New horticultural and ornamental plants Wildlife, aquaculture, natural resources and environmental management
Multidisciplinary Involves many disciplines or branches of learning Includes all areas of Life Sciences
Organismic Biotech Working with complete, intact organisms or their cells Organisms are not genetically changed with artificial means
Organismic Biotech Help the organism live better or be more productive Goal – improve organisms and the conditions in which they grow
Organismic Biotech Study and use natural genetic variations Cloning is an example of organismic biotech
Cloning Process of producing a new organism from cells or tissues of existing organism cloned sheep – Dolly in Edinburgh Scotland
Molecular Biotech Changing the genetic make-up of an organism Altering the structure and parts of cells Complex!
Molecular Biotech Uses genetic engineering, molecular mapping and similar processes
Genetic Engineering Changing the genetic information in a cell Specific trait of one organism may be isolated,cut, and moved into the cell of another organism
Transgenic Results of Gen. Eng. Are said to be transgenic Genetic material in an organism has been altered
Biotech examples Medicine Agriculture Environment Forestry Food and beverage processing
Medicine Some new developments delve into the hereditary material of humans known as gene therapy
Medicine Therapeutant - product used to maintain health or prevent disease Biopharmaceuticals – drug or vaccine developed through biotechnology Called designer drugs
Medicine Biopharming – production of pharmaceuticals in cultured organisms Combination of the agriculture and pharmaceutical industries
Medicine Certain blood – derived products needed in human medicine can be produced in the milk of goats
Environment Any biotechnological process that may promote a good environment Organisms developed during the gulf war to eat oil Organism used in gold mining to eat contaminants
Environmental Problems naturally solved by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi break down contaminant into a form less harmful or not harmful
Ag and Forestry Plant biotech Animal biotech
Plant biotech Improve plants and the products produced from them Insect and disease resistance Engineered to have desired characteristics
Plant biotech Corn plant produced with high levels of the amino acid Lysine
Animal Biotech Improve animals or the products they produce Animals may be used to produce products that promote human health
Animal Biotech Increase productivity Pigs engineered to produce human hemoglobin
Food and Beverages Use of technology in producing and processing Some biotech principles have been employed for hundreds of years Yeast in baking bread
Food and Bev. Genetically altered crops rBGH milk
Biotechnology Helps meet human needs Food, clothing and shelter Plants and animals are used in manufacturing food, clothing and materials for shelter
Biotechnology Used to make products more useful or desirable Ex: conversion of milk into cheese or yogurt
Efficiency Must keep the cost of improving products as low as possible Biotech results in greater efficiency
Efficiency Inoculating legume seeds with bacteria that allow the plant to pull nitrogen out of the air and put it into the soil Saves the producer the cost of applying N fertilizer
Efficiency Results in trees that grow faster and produce wood that is more desirable
Greater Production Increases yields bST use in cows to produce more milk Higher crop yields from drought, disease & insect resistant crops
Health Promoting Foods Food with unique traits Some contain therapeutants Some designed with nutrient enrichment
Safety Consumers want foods to provide needed nutrients and in some cases, enhanced foods Do not want side effects from those enhanced foods
Easy preparation Flavr-Savr Tomato Reached the market in early 1990s Engineered to have a longer shelf life
Flavr-Savr No soft spots No rotten spots Tomato resists spoilage
Synthetic biology Creating lifelike characteristics through the use of chemicals Based on creating structures similar to those found in living organisms
Synthetic Biology Need for synthetic cells lead to the development of the vesicle Vesicle – tiny rounded structure with cell like traits
Vesicle Tiny structures similar to soap bubbles were created to serve as the cell membrane Visible only with powerful microscope
Vesicle Once the cell membrane has been successfully developed, development of the materials with the cell is initiated.
Synthetic biology Is important because it brings science closer to creating life in the lab Cells and tissues may be developed to treat human injury and disease
Bio = _______ technos = ________ logos = ____________ Biotechnology = _____________________________.
Over Six billion people live on Earth. Help solve many problems Food, Health, Housing and other areas involved Pest resistant crops – increase production.
Biotechnology. What Is Biotechnology? GMO- genetically modified organisms. GEO- genetically enhanced organisms. With both, the natural genetic material.
Biotechnology BIT-110 (3 hrs) Dr. Hajra Sadia (PhD, Biotechnology)
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Transgenic Organisms. What are Transgenic Organisms? Transgenic organisms are organisms whose genetic material has been changed by the addition of foreign.
By : Kashish Moolrajani 7DD. GM Foods stands for Genetically Modified Foods. Genetically Modified Foods are plant products. A GM Food is basically a plant.
The simple addition, deletion, or manipulation of a single trait in an organism to create a desired change.
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Genetic Engineering When most people hear of genetic engineering, they think of some new technology that is going to create a superhuman race that will.
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