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Flowers HortBotany Lesson Plan #9. Flowers: A Marvelous Innovation Flowering plants first appeared around 140 million years ago (Upper Jurassic). Oldest.

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Presentation on theme: "Flowers HortBotany Lesson Plan #9. Flowers: A Marvelous Innovation Flowering plants first appeared around 140 million years ago (Upper Jurassic). Oldest."— Presentation transcript:

1 Flowers HortBotany Lesson Plan #9

2 Flowers: A Marvelous Innovation Flowering plants first appeared around 140 million years ago (Upper Jurassic). Oldest flower fossil is 125 million years old. The dominant forms of plant life were gymnosperms, cycads, and ferns.

3 Today Flowering plants (Angiosperms) are now the dominant form of plant life over most of the earths land surface. Ferns are rarely dominant and gymnosperms are dominant only in cold, or seasonally cold locations. Cycads are hanging on by a thread. Why have flowering plants been so successful?

4 Angiosperm Flowers Ovaries protect ovules and developing seeds; mature into fruits that promote seed dispersal Floral structure encourages pollinator fidelity; nectar and pollen to reward pollinators Fast reproductive cycle compared to gymnosperms

5 Structure of flowers Flowers are composed of four whorls. From the outside in, they are: Calyx (sepals) Corolla (petals) Androecium (stamens) Gynoecium (pistils)

6 Calyx Outermost whorl Usually green Protects developing flower Made up of SEPALS Sepals free or not

7 Sepals Usually green; leaflike structures that protect the flower, as it forms and emerges.

8 Sometimes sepals are colorful

9 Calyx The group of sepals on a flower

10 Corolla Is usually colorful and showy Attracts pollinators Guides pollinators Is composed of petals Petals may be united or separate

11 Petals Located just inside the sepals Leaf-like and often very colorful

12 Corolla The collection of petals on a flower

13 Perianth The sepals and the petals of a flower. (Not the reproductive parts.)

14 Tepals When there is no clear distinction between the sepals and the petals...they are called tepals. HIPPEASTRUM 'MARMADUKE

15 Androecium Is composed of stamens Stamens have filaments and anthers Pollen is produced in anthers Stamens can be free or united

16 Stamens Male reproductive parts of a flower Arranged around the female parts

17 Anther Part of the stamen Produces and holds pollen

18 Filament Stalk that holds up the anther

19 Gynoecium Is composed of pistils A pistil is composed of an ovary, style, and stigma.

20 Pistil = 1 or more carpels Each theoretical leaf unit is termed a carpel A pea pod is a mature pistil made up of 1 carpel Pistils with 2 style branches and/or chambers in the ovary are said to have 2 carpels Pistils with 3 style branches and/or chambers are said to have 3 carpels etc.

21 Stigma Found at the end of the pistil Has a sticky surface to catch pollen

22 Style The neck of the pistil

23 Ovary Part of the pistil that contains the ovules

24 Ovule The part of the flower in which the eggs are produced and seeds develop

25 Ovary Position I. Above the calyx and corolla (ovary superior) II. Ovary partially inferior III. Below the calyx and corolla (ovary inferior) Ovary position: I superior II partially-inferior III inferior. a androecium g gynoecium p petals s sepals r receptacle.

26 Hypanthium If the corolla and calyx are attached to a cup or tube that is then attached to the receptacle, the cup or tube is called a hypanthium.

27 Receptacle The top floral whorls are attached to the receptacle – the tissue where the stalk to the flower changes to being part of the flower

28 Pedicels Flowers are borne on pedicels Think of a pedicel as the stalk to a flower

29 Attracting Pollinators To survive, species must reproduce Pollination is the first major step in the reproduction of seed plants like gymnosperms and angiosperms Flowers persuade animals to serve as pollinators, preferably faithful pollinators To get the right pollen, flowers need to be memorable so …

30 Start thinking like a pollinator Is there a reward? How can I find another like this one? –Symmetry –Color pattern –Odor Will it be safe for me? –Corolla – united or separate petals –Corolla more important than calyx – why? Can I reach the reward and is it adequate? –nectaries and androecium

31 insect pollination

32 hummingbird pollination

33 bat pollination

34 wind pollination; eastern cottonwood catkins

35 Complete vs. Incomplete Flowers

36 Complete flowers Have all 4 basic parts: Sepals, petals, stamens and pistil

37 Incomplete Flowers Flowers that are missing one of the four basic parts

38 Perfect vs. Imperfect Flowers

39 Perfect Flowers Flowers that have both male and female parts

40 Imperfect flowers Flowers that lack one of the sex structures

41 Monoecious vs. Dioecious

42 Monoecious = 1 House refers to a species separate male and female flowers on the same plant Black Alder male catkins and female strobili

43 Dioecious = 2 Houses refers to a species separate male and female flowers on different plants

44 Common Winterberry male flowers Common Winterberry female flowers Common Winterberry fruit

45 What about corn? Monoecious or dioecious?

46 Corn is monoecious

47 The End


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