Presentation on theme: "How writers use language to influence the reader"— Presentation transcript:
1 How writers use language to influence the reader Rhetorical DevicesHow writers use language to influence the reader
2 Rhetorical question Definition Effects Example The writer will not expect you to answer this question – they suggest the answer for youEffectsDraws the reader into the textIntroduces ideas / topicsMakes the reader thinkExampleShould the UK leave the European Union?
4 Alliteration Definition Effects Example Within a sentence, a series of words will begin with the same soundEffectsDraws attention to the key wordsCan be used to reinforce ideas / conceptsMay be used for humorous effectExamplePolitics is probably pointless
5 Lists of 3 Definition Effects Example Three nouns, adjectives or verbs will be used in a list within a sentenceEffectsThe ‘magic 3’ fixes itself in the reader’s mindHighlights important ideasExampleSchool uniforms are uncomfortable, unattractive and unfashionable
6 Repetition Definition Effects Example The technique of repeating the same word and phraseEffectsHighlights key messagesReinforces important pointsLinks different parts of the textExampleThat class is boring, boring, boring.
7 Personal involvement / anecdote DefinitionThe writer incorporates aspects of their personal experience into the text – look for ‘I’EffectsAppeals to the reader – makes the writer seem more human or involvedCan be used for humour / pathosExampleI was shocked to find that many children don’t know the National Anthem!
8 Audience involvement / direct address DefinitionThe writer involves the reader by relating the subject to their livesLook for ‘you’ / ‘we’ / ‘us’ / ‘our’EffectsMakes the reader care about the subjectEstablishes a relationship between the reader and writerThe writing is less intimidatingExampleWe all know how bad school lunches are!
9 Facts and statistics Definition Effects Example Information and data, that can be proved to be trueEffectsThere are a range of specific effects, including to shock, surprise, support the writer’s view etcExample60% of the world’s population lives in poverty
10 Expert opinion / quotations DefinitionThe knowledge of an expert is referred to by the writerEffectsCan show an alternative point of viewThe reader trusts what the writer is sayingQuotations are very persuasiveExampleDr. Martin believes that more needs to be done to improve the health of young people
11 Metaphor and simile Definition Effects Example Types of imagery Metaphor – one object is said to be the same as anotherSimile – objects are compared to each other – look for ‘like’ or ‘as’EffectsMakes the writing more interesting and imaginative for the readerExampleAs dead as a dodo
12 Over-exaggeration Definition Effects Example The writer uses superlatives and adjectives to make a situation seem much worse / better than it really isEffectsShows the writer’s strong feelingsCan be used in humorous or ironic waysExampleMany schools have become like learning factories
13 Emotional language Definition Effects Example Language that is used to create a particular emotional response in the readerEffectsCan create strong feelings such as anger, guilt, joy, concern, empathy, hope etcInvolves the reader in the textExampleThis disastrous situation will only get worse unless we do something about it
14 Irony / Sarcasm Definition Effects Example Ideas are presented in a way that seems opposite to what is really meantEffectsCreates humourCan over-exaggerate a situationEngages the reader on a personal levelExample“What a lovely day” when it is pouring with rain
15 Parenthesis Definition Effects Example Brackets, dashes or commas are used to separate phrases from the main sentenceEffectsShows the writer’s personal viewsCan be used to create irony or humourExampleMost teenagers in the survey said they didn’t like homework (what a surprise!)
16 Pun Definition Effects Example A joking use of a word sounding the same as anotherEffectsEngages the reader’s attention through the use of humourCan be used to highlight an important ideaOften an interesting way of starting a text e.g. a headlineExampleDeciding where to bury him was a grave decision
17 Combining techniquesRemember that writers will often combine several rhetorical devices within a section of textExample: Over 90% of us believe that Americans are dull-witted, dreary and docile (no surprise there then!)Try to comment on the overall impact of this on the reader
18 Important adviceUse your reading time efficiently. If you know you have to write about the language in one of the texts, highlight key examples as you read itYou do not have to write about every device – it is better to evaluate three or four good examples than to simply ‘spot’ lots of them
20 Aristotle’s Triangle: A pictorial analysis of the speaking or writing situation. SpeakerAudience Purpose or subject
21 RhetoricRhetoric is a fancy word for using persuasive techniques in writing or speaking. Basically: using language effectively or persuasivelyIn rhetoric, a rhetorical device is a technique that an author or speaker uses to convey to the listener or reader a meaning with the goal of persuading him or her towards considering a topic from a different perspective.Examples:IronyMetaphorList of 3Repetition
22 In order for a speaker or writer to speak or write, he or she MUST consider both the audience and purpose.For example: If you are talking to an elementary school class, your topic, diction, and tone will be different than if you were speaking to a high school class.Another example: When you talk to your friends, your topic, diction, and tone are different than when you talk to your parents or teachers.
23 The speaker uses different approaches to influence the audience’s attitude toward the subject. These are the three ways you can appeal to an audience.
24 Logos (logic)Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect. Everyday arguments rely heavily on ethos and pathos, but academic arguments rely more on logos. Use clear and reasonable ideas with proof (any statistic)Effect of appeal: Evokes a cognitive, rational responseFor example:Nine out of ten dentists prefer Crest toothpaste.If you have a good education, you are more likely to find a good job.
25 Ethos (ethical or credibility) Related to the English word “ethics” and refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer. Effective persuasive strategy because when we believe that the speaker does not intend to do us harm, we will more likely listen.The person must be qualified to give this speech.You must be credible and knowledgeable about the content about the speech or piece of writingEffect of appeal: Demonstrates author's reliability, competence, and respect for the audience's ideas and valuesFor example:If you walk in to your calculus class, and I am the teacher, I have no ethos in that class.A high school football player gives speech about the time and discipline required to be a successful football player.If you are sick, you are not going to go to your mechanic for help.
26 Pathos (Emotions)Pathos is related to the words pathetic, sympathy and empathy. Whenever you accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim, you are acting on pathos.As the writer or speaker, you try to appeal to their emotionsYou may want them to feel sympathy or joyEffect of appeal: Evokes a personal, emotional responseFor example:The commercials about the starving children or dogs use pathos to appeal to your emotions hoping to persuade you to believe in their purpose.