Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 – Understanding Non-Fiction and Media Texts"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 1 – Understanding Non-Fiction and Media Texts AO3(iii) Explain and evaluate how writers use linguistic features to achieve effects and engage and influence the reader
2 Assessment ObjectiveAO3(iii) Explain and evaluate how writers use linguistic features to achieve effects and engage and influence the readerKnow some language termsBe able to explain the effects of theseEvaluate HOW and WHY they are used
3 The ExamOn Foundation Tier, you will be asked to analyse the language used in one textOn Higher Tier, you will be asked to compare the language used in two texts
4 Linguistic DevicesYou need to learn some examples of linguistic devicesIn the exam, you must be able to recall theseYou need to be able to identify these and give precise explanations of how a writer has used them
5 Address Does the writer address the reader directly? Look for the use of pronouns such as ‘you’, ‘we’ and ‘us’ or the use of rhetorical questionsAddressing the reader directly draws us into the textIt makes us feel like the ideas matter to us and that we are responsible
6 Types of sentences Short sentences will often be used for impact Longer sentences will be used to develop particular ideas or examplesLook out for the following:Exclamations = shock, surprise, angerImperatives = instructions or commandsQuestions = to make the reader think
7 Register Formal vocabulary and sentences Create a sense of authority or knowledgeCreate distance between the reader and writer i.e. the writer is superior to usInformal / colloquial vocabulary and sentencesCreate humour / irony / sarcasmMake the writer appear friendly and approachable i.e. equal to the reader
8 Emotive languageThese words are used deliberately to make us feel an emotion e.g. anger, fear, guilt, hopeIdentify specific words that are supposed to have this effectExplain what emotion they are supposed to make us feel
9 Factual languageFactual language will indicate that something is true or has happenedIt will support the writer’s opinions and ideas
10 VocabularyLook at particular types of words such as adjectives, verbs and adverbsAdjectives – describe objects or ideasVerbs – actionsAdverbs – describe how something is doneThink about why the writer has used this particular wordWhat does it mean and how does it support the writer’s views?
11 Lexical sets / semantic fields These are groups of words that all have a related meaningThey help hold the text together and emphasise key ideas e.g. soldiers, trenches, gunfire, mud would all make us think of war
12 Repetition of keywords Look for particular important words or phrases that are repeatedThe writer will want you to remember these phrasesExplain the reason why the writer wants you to remember these words
13 Rhetorical devicesYou should look for specific phrases that are used for persuasive effect – there are a whole range of devices to look forRemember to explain HOW the device affects the reader and WHY the writer has used itGive a precise explanation of the rhetorical device linked to the purpose of the text
14 Reading Framework Read the questions Read the text Work out the PAFT and messageHighlight examples – check the questionPlan your response – use a PEE table
15 Model QuestionHow is language used for effect by the writer?
16 Age Interests Lifestyle Gender Education ClassJob Hobbies Politics
17 Plan your answer – 1Highlight the text, identifying the most important examples of language you can find8 marks = 16 minutes8 marks = at least 3 really good examplesAnnotate your examples with explanations of the precise effect
18 Linguistic Devices Address Types of sentences Register Emotive languageFactual languageVocabularyLexical sets / semantic fieldsRepetition of keywordsRhetorical devices
19 (Identify a technique) Plan your answer – 2Point(Identify a technique)Evidence(Quotation)Explain(How this persuades)
20 Explaining effectsYou must give explanations that are matched to the text you have readDo not make generic statements like “it is effective”Every explanation must use the word “because”
21 Useful analytical language This connotes…This means…This suggests…This represents…This symbolises…This highlights…This shows…This makes us feel…This creates…This implies…Use this vocabulary to support your analyticaland evaluative comments about language
22 HOW and WHYFor each example, you need to explain HOW and WHY the language is usedHOW has the writer used the language i.e. what is the effect of this word on the reader?WHY has the writer used the language e.g. how does it help the writer achieve their purpose?
23 YOU MUST NEVER USE THE FOLLOWING PHRASES!!! … UNLESS YOU EXPLAIN WHY Banned answersYOU MUST NEVER USE THE FOLLOWING PHRASES!!!The language is goodThe language eye-catchingThe language is effectiveThe language is interestingThe language makes the reader thinkThe language means…… UNLESS YOU EXPLAIN WHY
24 Using PEEL Point – Identify a technique Evidence – Give a short quotationExplain – The effect of this technique on the readerLink – Refer back to the question (repeat some of the words)
25 Using PEEL – an exampleHow does the writer use language to persuade the reader?The writer has used a series of rhetorical questions. For example, he writes “How many of us recycle regularly?” These questions make us think about our own responsibility to the environment and how much rubbish we create. He does this because he wants us to feel guilty. This is persuasive because he feels that we all need to do more and it makes us think about our own actions.
26 How this is assessed Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4 Limited evidence of understandingNo real appreciation of languageVery few and poorly chosen examplesBand 2Some evidence of understandingSome appreciation of words and phrasesAttempts to support with examplesBand 3Clear evidence of understandingClear analysis of words and phrasesRelevant and appropriate quotations used to support ideasBand 4Full and detailed understanding of the contentDetailed and perceptive analysis of languageRelevant quotations with perceptive comments