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Unit 1 – Understanding Non-Fiction and Media Texts

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1 Unit 1 – Understanding Non-Fiction and Media Texts
AO3(iii) Explain and evaluate how writers use linguistic features to achieve effects and engage and influence the reader

2 Assessment Objective AO3(iii) Explain and evaluate how writers use linguistic features to achieve effects and engage and influence the reader Know some language terms Be able to explain the effects of these Evaluate HOW and WHY they are used

3 The Exam On Foundation Tier, you will be asked to analyse the language used in one text On Higher Tier, you will be asked to compare the language used in two texts

4 Linguistic Devices You need to learn some examples of linguistic devices In the exam, you must be able to recall these You need to be able to identify these and give precise explanations of how a writer has used them

5 Address Does the writer address the reader directly?
Look for the use of pronouns such as ‘you’, ‘we’ and ‘us’ or the use of rhetorical questions Addressing the reader directly draws us into the text It makes us feel like the ideas matter to us and that we are responsible

6 Types of sentences Short sentences will often be used for impact
Longer sentences will be used to develop particular ideas or examples Look out for the following: Exclamations = shock, surprise, anger Imperatives = instructions or commands Questions = to make the reader think

7 Register Formal vocabulary and sentences
Create a sense of authority or knowledge Create distance between the reader and writer i.e. the writer is superior to us Informal / colloquial vocabulary and sentences Create humour / irony / sarcasm Make the writer appear friendly and approachable i.e. equal to the reader

8 Emotive language These words are used deliberately to make us feel an emotion e.g. anger, fear, guilt, hope Identify specific words that are supposed to have this effect Explain what emotion they are supposed to make us feel

9 Factual language Factual language will indicate that something is true or has happened It will support the writer’s opinions and ideas

10 Vocabulary Look at particular types of words such as adjectives, verbs and adverbs Adjectives – describe objects or ideas Verbs – actions Adverbs – describe how something is done Think about why the writer has used this particular word What does it mean and how does it support the writer’s views?

11 Lexical sets / semantic fields
These are groups of words that all have a related meaning They help hold the text together and emphasise key ideas e.g. soldiers, trenches, gunfire, mud would all make us think of war

12 Repetition of keywords
Look for particular important words or phrases that are repeated The writer will want you to remember these phrases Explain the reason why the writer wants you to remember these words

13 Rhetorical devices You should look for specific phrases that are used for persuasive effect – there are a whole range of devices to look for Remember to explain HOW the device affects the reader and WHY the writer has used it Give a precise explanation of the rhetorical device linked to the purpose of the text

14 Reading Framework Read the questions Read the text
Work out the PAFT and message Highlight examples – check the question Plan your response – use a PEE table

15 Model Question How is language used for effect by the writer?

16 Age Interests Lifestyle
Gender Education Class Job Hobbies Politics

17 Plan your answer – 1 Highlight the text, identifying the most important examples of language you can find 8 marks = 16 minutes 8 marks = at least 3 really good examples Annotate your examples with explanations of the precise effect

18 Linguistic Devices Address Types of sentences Register
Emotive language Factual language Vocabulary Lexical sets / semantic fields Repetition of keywords Rhetorical devices

19 (Identify a technique)
Plan your answer – 2 Point (Identify a technique) Evidence (Quotation) Explain (How this persuades)

20 Explaining effects You must give explanations that are matched to the text you have read Do not make generic statements like “it is effective” Every explanation must use the word “because”

21 Useful analytical language
This connotes… This means… This suggests… This represents… This symbolises… This highlights… This shows… This makes us feel… This creates… This implies… Use this vocabulary to support your analytical and evaluative comments about language

22 HOW and WHY For each example, you need to explain HOW and WHY the language is used HOW has the writer used the language i.e. what is the effect of this word on the reader? WHY has the writer used the language e.g. how does it help the writer achieve their purpose?

Banned answers YOU MUST NEVER USE THE FOLLOWING PHRASES!!! The language is good The language eye-catching The language is effective The language is interesting The language makes the reader think The language means… … UNLESS YOU EXPLAIN WHY

24 Using PEEL Point – Identify a technique
Evidence – Give a short quotation Explain – The effect of this technique on the reader Link – Refer back to the question (repeat some of the words)

25 Using PEEL – an example How does the writer use language to persuade the reader? The writer has used a series of rhetorical questions. For example, he writes “How many of us recycle regularly?” These questions make us think about our own responsibility to the environment and how much rubbish we create. He does this because he wants us to feel guilty. This is persuasive because he feels that we all need to do more and it makes us think about our own actions.

26 How this is assessed Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Limited evidence of understanding No real appreciation of language Very few and poorly chosen examples Band 2 Some evidence of understanding Some appreciation of words and phrases Attempts to support with examples Band 3 Clear evidence of understanding Clear analysis of words and phrases Relevant and appropriate quotations used to support ideas Band 4 Full and detailed understanding of the content Detailed and perceptive analysis of language Relevant quotations with perceptive comments

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