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How writers use language to influence the reader

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Presentation on theme: "How writers use language to influence the reader"— Presentation transcript:

1 How writers use language to influence the reader
Rhetorical Devices How writers use language to influence the reader

2 Key Assessment Objective
AO2 (v) – understand and evaluate how writers use linguistic, structural and presentational devices You need to: Identify features of language Explain how the writer uses these to influence the reader Evaluate how successful this is

3 How this is assessed Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4
Little detail / unfocused Band 2 General, descriptive answer / spots obvious devices Band 3 Explains use of language / range of examples Band 4 Detailed evaluation / structured answer

4 Rhetorical question Definition Effects Example
The writer will not expect you to answer this question – they suggest the answer for you Effects Draws the reader into the text Introduces ideas / topics Makes the reader think Example Should the UK leave the European Union?

5 Alliteration Definition Effects Example
Within a sentence, a series of words will begin with the same sound Effects Draws attention to the key words Can be used to reinforce ideas / concepts May be used for humorous effect Example Politics is probably pointless

6 Lists of 3 Definition Effects Example
Three nouns, adjectives or verbs will be used in a list within a sentence Effects The ‘magic 3’ fixes itself in the reader’s mind Highlights important ideas Example School uniform, is uncomfortable, unattractive and unfashionable

7 Repetition Definition Effects Example
The technique of repeating the same word and phrase Effects Highlights key messages Reinforces important points Links different parts of the text Example Boring, boring, boring.

8 Personal involvement / anecdote
Definition The writer incorporates aspects of their personal experience into the text – look for ‘I’ Effects Appeals to the reader – makes the writer seem more human or involved Can be used for humour / pathos Example I was shocked to find that many children don’t know the National Anthem!

9 Audience involvement / direct address
Definition The writer involves the reader by relating the subject to their lives Look for ‘you’ / ‘we’ / ‘us’ / ‘our’ Effects Makes the reader care about the subject Establishes a relationship between the reader and writer The writing is less intimidating Example We all know how bad school dinners are!

10 Facts and statistics Definition Effects Example
Information and data, that can be proved to be true Effects There are a range of specific effects, including to shock, surprise, support the writer’s view etc Example 60% of the world’s population lives in poverty

11 Expert opinion / quotations
Definition The knowledge of an expert is referred to by the writer Effects Can show an alternative point of view The reader trusts what the writer is saying Quotations are very persuasive Example Dr Martin believes that more needs to be done to improve the health of young people

12 Metaphor and simile Definition Effects Example Types of imagery
Metaphor – one object is said to be the same as another Simile – objects are compared to each other – look for ‘like’ or ‘as’ Effects Makes the writing more interesting and imaginative for the reader Example As dead as a dodo

13 Over-exaggeration Definition Effects Example
The writer uses superlatives and adjectives to make a situation seem much worse / better than it really is Effects Shows the writer’s strong feelings Can be used in humorous or ironic ways Example Many schools have become like learning factories

14 Emotive language Definition Effects Example
Language that is used to create a particular emotional response in the reader Effects Can create strong feelings such as anger, guilt, joy, concern, empathy, hope etc Involves the reader in the text Example This disastrous situation will only get worse unless we do something about it

15 Irony / sarcasm Definition Effects Example
Ideas are presented in a way that seems opposite to what is really meant Effects Creates humour Can over-exaggerate a situation Engages the reader on a personal level Example “What a lovely day” when it is pouring with rain

16 Formal / informal register
Definition The level of formality within a piece of writing depends on the reader and intended effects. It is shown through the vocabulary and syntax used Effects Can make writing more authoritative, personal, appealing etc dependent on the register Either involves the reader personally, or shows that the writer is more experienced Example Who would believe it?!

17 Parenthesis Definition Effects Example
Brackets, dashes or commas are used to separate phrases from the main sentence Effects Shows the writer’s personal views Can be used to create irony or humour Example Most teenagers in the survey said they didn’t like homework (what a surprise!)

18 Pun Definition Effects Example
A joking use of a word sounding the same as another Effects Engages the reader’s attention through the use of humour Can be used to highlight an important idea Often an interesting way of starting a text e.g. a headline Example Deciding where to bury him was a grave decision

19 Combining techniques Remember that writers will often combine several rhetorical devices within a section of text E.g. Over 90% of us believe that Americans are dull-witted, dreary and docile (no surprise there then!) Try to comment on the overall impact of this on the reader

20 Important advice Use your reading time efficiently. If you know you have to write about the language in one of the texts, highlight key examples as you read it You do not have to write about every device – it is better to evaluate three or four good examples than to simply ‘spot’ lots of them Don’t forget to include these devices in your own writing in Section B!

21 A useful framework How effective is the writer’s use of language in persuading the reader to donate money to charity? (P) The writer thinks that… (Band 1) (E) He uses… when he says “…” (Band 2) (E) The effect of this is… (Band 3) (L) This supports the writers purpose because… (Band 4)

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