Presentation on theme: "How writers use language to influence the reader"— Presentation transcript:
1 How writers use language to influence the reader Rhetorical DevicesHow writers use language to influence the reader
2 Key Assessment Objective AO2 (v) – understand and evaluate how writers use linguistic, structural and presentational devicesYou need to:Identify features of languageExplain how the writer uses these to influence the readerEvaluate how successful this is
3 How this is assessed Band 1 Band 2 Band 3 Band 4 Little detail / unfocusedBand 2General, descriptive answer / spots obvious devicesBand 3Explains use of language / range of examplesBand 4Detailed evaluation / structured answer
4 Rhetorical question Definition Effects Example The writer will not expect you to answer this question – they suggest the answer for youEffectsDraws the reader into the textIntroduces ideas / topicsMakes the reader thinkExampleShould the UK leave the European Union?
5 Alliteration Definition Effects Example Within a sentence, a series of words will begin with the same soundEffectsDraws attention to the key wordsCan be used to reinforce ideas / conceptsMay be used for humorous effectExamplePolitics is probably pointless
6 Lists of 3 Definition Effects Example Three nouns, adjectives or verbs will be used in a list within a sentenceEffectsThe ‘magic 3’ fixes itself in the reader’s mindHighlights important ideasExampleSchool uniform, is uncomfortable, unattractive and unfashionable
7 Repetition Definition Effects Example The technique of repeating the same word and phraseEffectsHighlights key messagesReinforces important pointsLinks different parts of the textExampleBoring, boring, boring.
8 Personal involvement / anecdote DefinitionThe writer incorporates aspects of their personal experience into the text – look for ‘I’EffectsAppeals to the reader – makes the writer seem more human or involvedCan be used for humour / pathosExampleI was shocked to find that many children don’t know the National Anthem!
9 Audience involvement / direct address DefinitionThe writer involves the reader by relating the subject to their livesLook for ‘you’ / ‘we’ / ‘us’ / ‘our’EffectsMakes the reader care about the subjectEstablishes a relationship between the reader and writerThe writing is less intimidatingExampleWe all know how bad school dinners are!
10 Facts and statistics Definition Effects Example Information and data, that can be proved to be trueEffectsThere are a range of specific effects, including to shock, surprise, support the writer’s view etcExample60% of the world’s population lives in poverty
11 Expert opinion / quotations DefinitionThe knowledge of an expert is referred to by the writerEffectsCan show an alternative point of viewThe reader trusts what the writer is sayingQuotations are very persuasiveExampleDr Martin believes that more needs to be done to improve the health of young people
12 Metaphor and simile Definition Effects Example Types of imagery Metaphor – one object is said to be the same as anotherSimile – objects are compared to each other – look for ‘like’ or ‘as’EffectsMakes the writing more interesting and imaginative for the readerExampleAs dead as a dodo
13 Over-exaggeration Definition Effects Example The writer uses superlatives and adjectives to make a situation seem much worse / better than it really isEffectsShows the writer’s strong feelingsCan be used in humorous or ironic waysExampleMany schools have become like learning factories
14 Emotive language Definition Effects Example Language that is used to create a particular emotional response in the readerEffectsCan create strong feelings such as anger, guilt, joy, concern, empathy, hope etcInvolves the reader in the textExampleThis disastrous situation will only get worse unless we do something about it
15 Irony / sarcasm Definition Effects Example Ideas are presented in a way that seems opposite to what is really meantEffectsCreates humourCan over-exaggerate a situationEngages the reader on a personal levelExample“What a lovely day” when it is pouring with rain
16 Formal / informal register DefinitionThe level of formality within a piece of writing depends on the reader and intended effects. It is shown through the vocabulary and syntax usedEffectsCan make writing more authoritative, personal, appealing etc dependent on the registerEither involves the reader personally, or shows that the writer is more experiencedExampleWho would believe it?!
17 Parenthesis Definition Effects Example Brackets, dashes or commas are used to separate phrases from the main sentenceEffectsShows the writer’s personal viewsCan be used to create irony or humourExampleMost teenagers in the survey said they didn’t like homework (what a surprise!)
18 Pun Definition Effects Example A joking use of a word sounding the same as anotherEffectsEngages the reader’s attention through the use of humourCan be used to highlight an important ideaOften an interesting way of starting a text e.g. a headlineExampleDeciding where to bury him was a grave decision
19 Combining techniquesRemember that writers will often combine several rhetorical devices within a section of textE.g. Over 90% of us believe that Americans are dull-witted, dreary and docile (no surprise there then!)Try to comment on the overall impact of this on the reader
20 Important adviceUse your reading time efficiently. If you know you have to write about the language in one of the texts, highlight key examples as you read itYou do not have to write about every device – it is better to evaluate three or four good examples than to simply ‘spot’ lots of themDon’t forget to include these devices in your own writing in Section B!
21 A useful frameworkHow effective is the writer’s use of language in persuading the reader to donate money to charity?(P) The writer thinks that… (Band 1)(E) He uses… when he says “…” (Band 2)(E) The effect of this is… (Band 3)(L) This supports the writers purpose because… (Band 4)