3 Rhetoric & Elements of Argument First, understand that argument is not simply a dispute, as when people disagree with one another or shout at each other. Argument is about making a case in support of a claim in everyday affairs—in science, in policy making, in school, in courtrooms, and so forth.
4 Argument & PersuasionPersuasion and argument are often used interchangeably-but they are not the same!Persuasion is a broad term, which includes many tactics designed to move people to a position, a belief, or a course of action.Persuasion relies much less on facts (logos) and more on emotions (pathos).Argument is a specific kind of persuasion based on the principles of logic and reasoning (logos).
5 The Importance of Argument and Persuasion In everyday life…Appealing a grade, asking for a raise, applying for a job, negotiating the price of a new car, arguing in traffic courtIn academic life…Defending your ideas, engaging intellectual debateOn the job…Getting people to listen to your ideas, winning buy-in, getting your boss to notice, getting cooperation, moving people to action
6 The Importance of Argument and Persuasion In writing…Irrefutably making your point, writing to be readIn reading and listening…Critically evaluating other’s arguments, protecting yourself from unethical persuasive tactics, recognizing faulty reasoning when you see it.TO CREATE CHANGE/AWARENESS
7 value or persuasiveness. Analyzing ArgumentIn an argument essay, the writer selects evidence, and use logical appeal to structure an argument to prove a position on the topic. The single purpose is to argue a position and defend it with evidence in any discipline.When you evaluate an argument or set of claims, you determine itsvalue or persuasiveness.
8 Writer/Speaker (Ethos) Rhetorical Triangle While reading & analyzing arguments, address these 5 rhetorical elements:Writer/Speaker (Ethos)Audience (Pathos)Message (Logos)PurposeRhetorical ContextAdd five elements of the rhetorical triangle: writer, audience, message, purpose & rhetorical context.
9 Writer’s Claim (Thesis) Identify the claim – main idea, thesis, or the point the author is making – it may be directly stated or implied. Further, it may come early in the writing or near the end. What is the point of the argument?
10 Writer/Speaker (Ethos) Writer’s PurposeWhile reading or writing an argument, identify, the purpose of the communication – this is the rhetorical goal.In other words, what is the author trying to achieve in his or her message?Writer/Speaker (Ethos)Audience (Pathos)Message (Logos)PurposeRhetorical Context
11 Writer/Speaker (Ethos) Rhetorical Contextis the political, historical, social, cultural, and economic setting for a particular idea or event. In order to better understand the rhetoric, readers must look at its context--those things which surround it in time and place and give it its meaning.Writer/Speaker (Ethos)Audience (Pathos)Message (Logos)PurposeRhetorical Context
12 Writer/Speaker (Ethos) Audience (Pathos)While reading, identify who the intended or target audience is. Consider the rhetorical context when identifying this. As a writer, you must ask, “What values and belief do I appeal to in the audience? How can I engage both the audience’s heart and mind?” To have your message accepted by an audience, the writer should try to appeal to their emotions, which is why the audience is often linked with pathos in the rhetorical triangle.Writer/Speaker (Ethos)Audience (Pathos)Message (Logos)PurposeRhetorical Context
13 Writer/Speaker (Ethos) While reading, identify what the writer is using to build credibility and trust with their audience. Consider their inherent background.They can build their ethosthrough the choices theymake in terms of tone,style and addressingcounter arguments.Writer/Speaker (Ethos)Audience (Pathos)Message (Logos)PurposeRhetorical Context
14 Writer/Speaker (Ethos) Message (Logos)Writer/Speaker (Ethos)Audience (Pathos)Message (Logos)PurposeRhetorical ContextIn the rhetorical triangle, the message is often linked with logos, the content of the communication.Logos is the logical use of evidence the author uses to support their message (or claim).As a reader, you must ask yourself, “What assumptions support the reasoning? What is the evidence?”
15 Evidence can be any fact, statistic, or quote from others, provable sources. Evidence, to be useful, must be relevant and verifiable.
16 Rhetorical Strategies Cause and effect (logos) - These claims argue that one person, thing, or event caused another thing or event to occur.Analogy (logos) - This is an argument in which a conclusion is drawn about a situation based on similarities of this situation (analogies) to previous situations. It is considered the weakest of all of the techniques.Stylistic Devices:repetition, figurative language, sarcasm, symbolism, anecdote, and many more…
17 Evidence vs. OpinionSome authors word their argument so subtly that the reader may confuse what is actually evidence vs. opinion. It takes a careful analysis to determine the difference.
18 Most Common Rhetorical Strategies Underlined words=leave a blank space under it. We are going to find examples!Cause and Effect: because of this…this happened…Analogy: comparison between two words (or sets of words) to highlight some form of similarity between themWhat death is to life, blindness is to vision.RepetitionFigurative Language (which will include simile, metaphor, imagery, etc)No example needed.
19 Diction: specific word choice to achieve a particular tone Allusions: an expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing referenceEspecially to the Bible and historical figuresDiction: specific word choice to achieve a particular tone
20 Syntax: the way sentences are structured Long sentences, short sentences, simple, complexShift in point of view: changes the narratorfirst person to third person etc.Sarcasm: saying the opposite of what you mean, usually adding an extra commentNice perfume. Must you drown yourself in it?Humor: trying to make you laugh
21 Anecdotes: stories to illustrate a point Rhetorical Questions: a question that is asked in order to make a point, rather than to get an answerDon’t you hate rhetorical questions?Extended metaphor: a comparison that is extended through the length of the pieceExample movie/book/storyJuxtaposition: purposefully comparing two things in order to show their differencesAnecdotes: stories to illustrate a point
22 In your group… Find an example for each of the following. Write down the example in your notes.Cause and EffectRepetitionExtended metaphorJuxtaposition:Anecdotes:Humor