Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Rhetoric"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Rhetoric What do Students Need to Know about Rhetoric
2 Defining “Rhetoric”What do you think it means? Have you heard this term? Consider these quotations:“Obama’s campaign is more style than substance, more rhetoric than specifics.”“Rhetoric is a poor substitute for action, and we have trusted only to rhetoric. If we are really to be a great nation, we must not merely talk; we must act big.”
3 Definition of “Rhetoric” Rhetoric is…The art of persuading an audience effectivelyAnalyzing all the language choices that a writer, speaker, reader, or listener might make to make a text meaningful, powerful, or persuasiveIt is around us, and we use it everyday.It is the ordinariness of rhetoric
4 Why do we study rhetoric? We want to learn:1) How do great speakers use rhetorical strategies to convince the audience2) How can I use rhetorical strategies to convince the audience?3) We want to understand how language can be used to persuade.
5 People use rhetoric when… Politicians try to get you to vote for themLawyers try to convince a juryCompanies attempt to get you to buy something in a commercialWhen the president gives a speechWhen someone writes a note to a friendWhen you try to convince your parents to let you go to the winter formal
7 The 3 parts of the rhetorical triangle must complement one another. Speaker/Rhetor: uses Appeal to ethos- The speaker must be credible and trustworthyAttitude to a subject and understanding of a reader shape byWho they areWhat they know and feelWhat they’ve seen and doneFormal v. informal languageTone
8 3 parts of the triangleAudience: uses Appeal to pathos - Speaker must appeal to audience’s values, interests, & emotionsSpeculate reader’s expectation, knowledge, and dispositionUse their own experience and observation
9 3 parts of the triangleSubject: uses Appeal to logos – Subject is the topic. The argument about the topic must be logicalWhat the speaker knows already and needs to knowInvestigates perspectiveDetermines evidence or proof that seems most useful
10 More on the appeals Logos Offer clear, reasonable premise and proof Develop ideas with appropriate detailsMake sure reader can follow progression
11 More on the appeals Ethos Demonstrate speaker is good-willed, credible, and knowledgeable about subjectConnect their thinking to readers’ own ethical or moral beliefsGood man speaking wellAssume best intentions and most thoughtful search for truths
12 More on the appeals Pathos Most powerful appeal and most immediate Draw on emotions and interests of readersHighlights themPersonal stories (anecdotes)Provoke sympathetic reaction
13 Other things to consider: Context: The time, place, and world in which the text takes place shapes how the audience understands the text. The “appropriateness” of the situation (such as timing or cultural & social norms) affects how persuasive the message is.Purpose: What’s the point of this message? Why is the author writing this? What does he/she want you to feel, believe, or think about?
14 Conclusion More important to: Don’t need to memorize the five cannon Recognize how figures of speech affect readersBe able to use them effectively to persuade and communicateDon’t need to memorize the five cannonInvention, arrangement, style, memory, deliveryConnections!Words you work with in class withThe world around you