Presentation on theme: "Persuasive techniques Logos, Ethos and Pathos AND Fallacies."— Presentation transcript:
Persuasive techniques Logos, Ethos and Pathos AND Fallacies
What is Rhetoric? Rhetoric (n) - the art of speaking or writing effectively (Webster's Definition). –According to Aristotle, rhetoric is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion." He described three main forms of rhetoric: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos. Whenever you read an argument you must ask yourself, ” Is this persuasive? And if so, to whom?" Whenever you read an argument you must ask yourself, ” Is this persuasive? And if so, to whom?" In order to be a more effective writer, you must understand these three terms. You will better understand their meanings which will make your writing more persuasive.
There are several ways to appeal to an audience. There are several ways to appeal to an audience. Ethos Logos Pathos
Ethos (Credibility) Ethos: the source's credibility, the speaker's/author's authority We tend to believe people whom we respect. One of the central problems of argumentation is to project an impression to the reader that you are someone worth listening to, in other words making yourself as author into an authority on the subject of the paper, as well as someone who is likable and worthy of respect.
Ethos –Ethos is related to the English word ethics and refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer. –Ethos is related to the English word ethics and refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer. –Ethos is an effective persuasive strategy because when we believe that the speaker does not intend to do us harm, we are more willing to listen to what s/he has to say. –When a judge comments on legal precedent audiences tend to listen because it is the job of a judge to know the nature of past legal cases.
Ethos Example: Product: George Foreman and his Grilling Machine Repertoire: Boxing Champ and a Preacher Why is George Foreman credible?
Logos (Logical) Logos: the logic used to support a claim (induction and deduction); can also be the facts and statistics used to help support the argument. –Persuading by the use of reasoning. – An effective and persuasive reason that supports your ideas.
Logos Everyday arguments rely heavily on ethos and pathos, but academic arguments rely more on logos: there will be logical chains of reasoning supporting all claims.
Logos Example: Idea: Students should be allowed to use cell phones during school hours. – – – List three supporting facts and/or statistics that will support the aforementioned idea.
Pathos (Emotional) Pathos: persuading by appealing to the reader's emotions. Emotional appeals, are used to persuade. Language choice affects the audience's emotional response, and emotional appeal can effectively be used to enhance an argument. (pathetic) How? Anecdotal writing or narratives within persuasive writing
Pathos –A majority of arguments in the popular press are heavily dependent on pathetic appeals. –A majority of arguments in the popular press are heavily dependent on pathetic appeals. –Appeals to pathos touch a nerve and compel people to not only listen, but to also take the next step and act in the world.
Logos Example continued… Few of our children breath fresh air in their schools, which are being sprayed, inside and out, with millions of pounds of deadly, nervous system destroying pesticides. What are the details provided in this claim?
Pathos Example: How does this advertisement appeal to emotion? Why?