Persuasion and argument are often used interchangeably Persuasion is a broad term, which includes many tactics designed to move people to a position, a belief, or a course of action Argument is a specific kind of persuasion based on the principles of logic and reasoning
In an argument essay, the writer selects evidence, and use logical appeal to structure an argument to prove a position on the topic. The single purpose is to argue a position and defend it with evidence in any discipline. When you evaluate an argument or set of claims, you determine its value or persuasiveness.
Identify the claim – main idea, thesis, or the point the author is making – it may be directly stated or implied. Further, it may come early in the writing or near the end. What is the point of the argument?
While reading or writing an argument, identify, the purpose of the communication – this is the rhetorical goal. In other words, what is the author trying to achieve in his or her message?
is the political, historical, social, cultural, and economic setting for a particular idea or event. In order to better understand the rhetoric, readers must look at its context--those things which surround it in time and place and give it its meaning.
While reading, identify who the intended or target audience is. Consider the rhetorical context when identifying this. As a writer, you must ask, “What values and belief do I appeal to in the audience? How can I engage both the audience’s heart and mind?” To have your message accepted by an audience, the writer should try to appeal to their emotions, which is why the audience is often linked with pathos in the rhetorical triangle.
While reading, identify what the writer is using to build credibility and trust with their audience. Consider their inherent background. They can build their ethos through the choices they make in terms of tone, style and addressing counter arguments.
In the rhetorical triangle, the message is often linked with logos, the content of the communication. Logos is the logical use of evidence the author uses to support their message (or claim). As a reader, you must ask yourself, “What assumptions support the reasoning? What is the evidence?”
Evidence can be any fact, statistic, or quote from others, provable sources. Evidence, to be useful, must be relevant and verifiable.
1. Cause and effect (logos) - These claims argue that one person, thing, or event caused another thing or event to occur. 2. Analogy (logos) - This is an argument in which a conclusion is drawn about a situation based on similarities of this situation (analogies) to previous situations. It is considered the weakest of all of the techniques. 3. Stylistic Devices: repetition, figurative language, sarcasm, symbolism, anecdote, and many more…
Some authors word their argument so subtly that the reader may confuse what is actually evidence vs. opinion. It takes a careful analysis to determine the difference.