2 What are Rhetorical Techniques? The effective use of words to persuade or influence.Includes ethos, logos and pathos.Includes tone, diction, details, imagery, figurative language, humor, syntax, etc, etc, etc.Anything used to deliberately create effect.What are Rhetorical Techniques?
3 Rhetorical Triangle Chose any text and answer the following questions: - Who created this text?- Who did they create this text for?- Why did they create this text?AuthorRhetorical TriangleAudiencePurpose
4 Rhetorical Triangle: Author What do we know about the writer, speaker, artist, designer, or creator?educational backgroundpolitical affiliationsinvestment in messagebiasesWhere do we look for information about the author?When discussing the second question, make sure that students understand that we can find the information about the author not only in the introductory paragraph, but also from the organizational structure of a text and author’s language use (e.g., metaphors, comparisons, sentence length).Rhetorical Triangle: Author
5 Rhetorical Triangle: Audience who is the message intended for?Age, gender, social/cultural group, political affiliation, etc…Where do we look for information about the audience?Rhetorical Triangle: Audience
6 Rhetorical Triangle: Purpose What is the purpose of your text?To inform?To entertain?To call to action?How can you infer the purpose of the text?What elements of the text do you refer to in order to find information about its purpose?Rhetorical Triangle: Purpose
7 Rhetorical Analysis = Why, How, So What WHY = Are the choices effective and appropriate for the intended audience?HOW = What techniques doe the writer choose to present the material?SO WHAT = What is accomplished or created?If you don’t do this, you don’t have analysis!!
8 Compose a thesis that states BOTH the effect AND the techniques. Be sure to avoid the trap of explaining meaning; you are not being asked what a passage means.Focus on HOW a technique creates the given effect.
9 The Rhetorical Appeals: Ethos Ethos- Credibility- Ethics- trustworthiness of the speaker/writerCredibility based on audience’s view of author and subject.For Academic Argument, an author must:- Exhibit good sense- Demonstrate high moral character- Good willThe Rhetorical Appeals: Ethos
10 The Rhetorical Appeals: Logos Logos - LogicAttempt to appeal to the intellectEveryday arguments vs. academic argumentsCommon ways to appeal to logos?The most valued appeal in academic argument. Accomplished through inductive or deductive reasoning, or specificallyDefinition,Evidence from other sources, orExpert testimonyThe Rhetorical Appeals: Logos
11 The Rhetorical Appeals: Pathos Pathos – Pathetic, sympathy, empathyAppeal to emotions;Arguments in popular press;Manipulative;Effect?Appeals to emotion are accomplished throughSensory descriptionValue-laden dictionAnecdotesObjects of emotions (peoples, abstract concepts, etc.)The Rhetorical Appeals: Pathos
12 Rhetorical Triangle and Rhetorical Appeals Our job is to see how the rhetorical triangle and rhetorical appeals work together to create a messageThese tools are not exclusive; all six should be considered when evaluating a textAuthorEthosLogosPathosAudiencePurposeRhetorical Triangle and Rhetorical Appeals
13 How do I Write a Thesis for a Rhetorical Analysis? The author’s nameplus an adjective (sophisticated, carefully crafted, flashy, inventive)plus the rhetoric strategies (three specific rhetorical strategies used as topics of body paragraphs)plus a strong verb (demonstrates, creates, emphasizes, generates, fulfills)plus the function (what the rhetoric does for the piece)Example: Douglass’s sophisticated use of diction, imagery and figurative language creates his unfavorable attitude towards slavery.How do I Write a Thesis for a Rhetorical Analysis?
14 Use the SAME FORMULA to create your analysis… Diction:Author’s nameplus adjectiveplus the term “diction”plus a strong verbplus the functionplus examples from text.Example: Andrist’s snazzy diction recreates the dynamic personality of General Custer with choices such as “flamboyant” and “teetotaler”.Use the SAME FORMULA to create your analysis…
15 Tone:Author’s nameplus an adjective (informal, light, impartial, simple)plus the term “tone”plus strong verbplus the functionplus examples.Syntax:Author’s nameplus an adjective (short, simple, varied, repetitive, balanced)plus the term “syntax”plus the functionplus examples.