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1 ______________________________________________________________
Rhetoric ______________________________________________________________ The Art of Persuasion

2 Three Main Rhetorical Styles
The goal of argumentative writing is to persuade your audience that your ideas are valid, or more valid than someone else's. The Greek philosopher, Aristotle, divided the means of persuasion into three categories--Ethos, Pathos, and Logos.

3 Who Exactly Was Aristotle?
Aristotle was a famous Greek philosopher who studied the art of persuasion. Plato, another famous Greek philosopher, was his teacher. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great how to properly argue and perform a public speech.

4 Aristotle’s Teachings
In approximately 300 B.C., Aristotle wrote The Art of Rhetoric. In his book, Aristotle identified the three methods of persuasion. He called them ethos, pathos and logos. Aristotle Plato

5 Ethos, Pathos and Logos Ethos = an ethical or moral argument—
appeals to one’s sense of credibility or trustworthiness Pathos = an emotional argument— appeals to one’s emotions 3. Logos = a logical argument—appeals to one’s sense of logic

6 Ethos The word "ethos" is the Greek word for character.  Aristotle contends that a speaker must establish credibility in the minds of the audience. In order to do so, the speaker must show that he or she has expertise in the subject matter and that he or she is disconnected from topic (i.e., the speaker does not and will not have a direct interest or an ulterior motive for convincing his or her audience). For example, when a trusted doctor gives you advice, you may not understand all of the medical reasoning behind the advice, but you nonetheless follow the directions because you believe that the doctor knows what he is talking about. 

7 Ethos continued … Ethos is related to the English word ethics and refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer.  Ethos is an effective persuasive strategy because when we believe that the speaker does not intend to do us harm, we are more willing to listen to what he has to say.    Credibility can be established through tone, reputation, the message at hand, or various other ways If someone as wealthy as Rihanna is using Nivea, then you should too. She could afford a lotion much more expensive, but she stays beautiful with affordable Nivea.


9 Pathos Pathos is the Greek word for “suffering” or “experience or “passion.” It is related to the words “sympathy” and “empathy.”  Whenever you accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim, you are acting on pathos.  Those who wish to persuade you will play with your emotions. They may persuade you with fear, love, patriotism, guilt, hate or joy. Appeals of pathos are made through vivid language/images and often evoke one’s sympathies and/or imagination Although the use of pathos can be manipulative, it is often the cornerstone of moving people to action.

10 Pathos continued… Better men than us have fought and died to preserve this great nation. Now is our turn to return the favor. For God and country, gentlemen! Do not be the last person to do it. You will be the laughingstock of the community! You’ll make the right decision because you have something that not many people do: you have heart.


12 Logos Logos is the Greek word for “logic.”
Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect. The audience relies on reasoning and facts to make its decision.  Numbers, polls and statistics are also examples of the persuasive use of logic. 

13 Logos continued … You don’t need to jump off a bridge to know that’s deadly. Thus, you don’t need to try drugs to know they’re harmful. More than a hundred studies have been done, and none of them have shown harmful side effects. Guns don’t kill. People do.

14 Can all three forms of appeal be used at once???
Ethos—Model and celebrity Brook Shields uses this product so it must work Pathos—I want to look as beautiful as her Logos—It’s FDA approved and prescribed by doctors

15 REVIEW Ethos, Pathos and Logos
Ethos: the source's credibility, the speaker's/author's authority Logos: the logic used to support a claim (induction and deduction); can also be the facts and statistics used to help support the argument. Pathos: the emotional or motivational appeals; vivid language, emotional language, and numerous sensory details.

16 Ethos Dr. Oz wants you to eat spinach so you grow up to be strong, smart and healthy.

17 Pathos You will make Barney happy, happy, happy! Eat Spinach

18 Pathos I bet the hungry children in Africa would eat their spinach, and they would really be thankful for it.

19 Logos You should eat spinach because it has Folic Acid, Vitamin A, C and Calcium. According to the CDC, Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of death, and researchers found in 2008 that the flavanoids in spinach can prevent cancer.

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